What is the normal testosterone level in men: table, age and related indicators
Male sex hormones are specific chemicals that affect the performance of the entire human body.
In the life of a man, the main role is played by testosterone - this is a hormone that is produced in the male and female body. Only he has different indicators for both sexes. In the stronger sex, androgen is reproduced by the testes using Leydig cells. Without this hormone, normal sexual development does not occur.
Testosterone is also called "male", the hormone of "winners" and "kings." In adults, its indicators form sexual characteristics and the functioning of the genitals.
Male hormone levels depend on:
- stressful situations, depressions,
- the presence of infectious or chronic diseases, obesity, the state of the immune system,
- age category
- immobility, malnutrition, ecology,
- bad habits (smoking, alcohol, drugs)
- taking anabolic steroids
- genetic predisposition
Normal amount of androgens in the blood:
- contributes to the proper development and growth of the genitals,
- establishes spermatogenesis,
- forms male signs in character, body and behavior,
- stimulates libido.
Table of normal values of the hormone by age:
|Age||Blood norm, nmol / l|
|0-1 years old||0, 42- 0,72|
|1-7 years old||0,1 – 1,12|
|7-13 years old||0,1 — 2,37|
|13-18 years old||0,98 – 38,5|
|18-50 years old||8,64 — 29|
|More than 50 years||6,68 – 25,7|
Total and free testosterone in men
Total testosterone is the sum of hormones in a free (unbound) and bound state.
Free androgen is 2%, and associated - 98% of the total. At the same time, 44% of 98% is the hormone bound by globulin (SHBG), and 54% is testosterone bound to albumin and other proteins.
Free androgen is active, it is responsible for the proper functioning of the reproductive system and the presence of libido. Hormone deficiency can give rise to problems such as:
- violation of fat metabolism,
- mental disorders,
- problems with heart,
- decrease in muscle and bone mass,
Depending on the individual and age-specific characteristics of a particular man, the indicator of total androgen is as follows:
- men 18-69 years old: 250-1100 ng / dl,
- age 70 years and older: 90-890 ng / dl.
Average free testosterone:
- males 18-69 years old: 46-224 ng / dl,
- age 70 years and older: 6-73 ng / dl.
Testosterone below normal
In men aged 30 years, under the influence of negative external factors, the active hormone can drop sharply below normal. And after 50 years, the coefficient of the bound decreases. After 40 years, the first drop in related androgen may occur, which is called a midlife crisis. The highest concentration of testosterone is 25-30 years. Up to 50 years, about 13% of men have a degree of male hormone in the blood below normal.
Due to the lack of androgen after 55-60 years, it is difficult to gain muscle mass or lose weight.
Signs of Low Testosterone
Signs that the hormone in the blood is below normal:
- voice mutation, higher timbre,
- reduction or absence of hair on the body and face (the exception is the loss of hair on the head, which indicates increased testosterone),
- female type obesity (in the abdomen, hips),
- depression, fatigue, nervousness, insomnia.
- reduced nightly erections, lack of sexual desire,
- increased sweating,
- decrease in muscle and bone mass
- dryness and sagging skin.
If at least 3 of the above symptoms are manifested, it is necessary to consult a specialist.
Androgen below normal
Lower androgen androgen can lead to various diseases. Such as:
- development of diabetes mellitus: due to the low level of the hormone, the body's sensitivity to insulin decreases,
- cardiovascular disease (can cause myocardial infarction),
- prostate cancer,
Androgen may be below normal for the following reasons:
- Psychological: adrenaline, which is released during stress, inhibits the production of androgen.
- Nutrition: An unbalanced diet can be a major cause of low levels of male hormone. You need to exclude foods that lower androgens, and add more vitamins and foods that increase testosterone.
- Bad habits: alcohol and carbonated drinks, tobacco, caffeine, drugs negatively affect the level of androgen.
- Genital Injury.
- Age: after a certain age (30 years) there is a decrease in testosterone levels annually by 1-2%. This is caused by age-related changes and has an irreversible process.
- Sedentary lifestyle: moderate physical activity and strength training increase the level of androgen. But too much physical activity and the use of anabolic steroids leads to a decrease in the hormone.
- Consequences after illness and medication.
Testosterone Above Normal
Signs of high levels of androgen in the blood:
- aggressiveness, temper, nervousness,
- excitability, excitement,
- addiction to violence
- increased hairiness.
With an increased norm of the hormone in men, testicular atrophy can develop in the blood, which leads to impotence and infertility.
In the womb
During pregnancy Testosterone plays an important role in the formation of a developing fetus. This stimulates the development of the male reproductive system. Testosterone is also responsible for brain formation.
However, testosterone levels must be in a very narrow range so that the fetal brain is healthy.
The norm of dihydrotestosterone in men
Dihydrotestosterone is the most active and natural steroid hormone that determines the proper development of adolescents during puberty, affects the formation and growth of male genitalia, the presence of male sexual behavior and erectile function. This powerful androgen is synthesized from free testosterone by the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. Dihydrotestosterone controls the process of cell division.
The main part (70%) of dihydrotestosterone is found in the skin of the genital organs and in the hair follicles. Therefore, the first sign of impaired androgen levels is hair loss.
Symptoms in which you can understand that the level of dihydrotestosterone is below normal:
- low androgen levels
- hair loss on the head,
- a decrease in the size of the male genital organs,
The rate of dihydrotestosterone depends on the amount of testosterone in the blood. The higher the level of the first, the more it is fermented into dihydrotestosterone. It is necessary to control the level of androgen in the blood, which is regulated by the pituitary and hypothalamus.
The norm of dihydrotestosterone in men, table:
|Age of men||Dihydrotestosterone, pg / ml|
|Up to 10 years||5-50|
|10-12 years old||5-50|
|After 12 years||250-990|
To normalize the level of male hormone in the blood, a man needs to undergo treatment, which will be prescribed by a specialist. It is recommended that:
- have a good rest
- add moderate physical activity, a mobile lifestyle,
- balanced diet,
- do not take anabolic steroids,
- to refuse from bad habits.
From adolescence to early adulthood
Testosterone levels are highest in adolescence and in early adulthood. The first physical signs of testosterone or androgens in the body are evident during puberty. The boy’s voice changes, his shoulders widen, and his facial structure becomes more manly.But as men grow older, testosterone levels decrease by about 1 percent per year after 30 years.
Testosterone is often considered the fountain of youth hormone. In some men, a decrease in testosterone may be significant. Between 19 and 39 percent of older men may have low testosterone levels. But naturally, a decrease in testosterone does not cause signs and symptoms of aging, according to the Mayo Clinic.
However, if testosterone is low, then this can cause changes in the sexual function of men, including:
- Decreased sexual desire or low libido.
- Less spontaneous erections.
- Impotence (erectile dysfunction).
Other signs of decreased testosterone include:
- Changes in sleep patterns.
- Low self-confidence and lack of motivation (emotional changes).
- The amount of fat in the body increases, and muscle mass decreases, as does the density of bone tissue (physical changes).
According to the American Association of Urology, about 2 out of 10 men over 60 have low testosterone. This figure rises slightly to 3 out of 10 people between the 70s and 80s.
Signs of androgen deficiency
But there are other conditions besides age that can lead to low testosterone levels:
- Obesity, lack of physical activity and malnutrition.
- Diabetes (2 types).
- Chronic diseases (especially liver or kidney disease).
- Hormonal disorders.
- Medicines (drugs, chemotherapy).
Symptoms of lowering testosterone levels are as follows:
- low sex drive
- erectile dysfunction (impotence),
- problems with orgasm
- low fluid level. Three parts of the human body work together to produce sperm that contains the fluid that is released when he ejaculates: the prostate, seminal vesicles, and testicles.
Each of these parts needs a good supply of testosterone to obtain a normal volume of ejaculation from 1.5 to 5 cubic centimeters. A person with a decrease in testosterone levels may notice a sharp decrease in its volume,
And besides helping to solve problems of sexuality, mood and appearance, testosterone therapy can help protect your child from a number of serious medical problems, including diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases.
Hormone is normal
Testosterone, like its derivative dihydrotestosterone, is an androgen. These are male hormones secreted by the cells of the testicles, as well as the adrenal cortex. Testosterone levels can be determined using a blood and saliva test. as well as by external signs. Using a blood test, blood is taken from a vein and a blood plasma analysis is performed.
In the blood, total and free testosterone, bioavailable, and also calculated (androgenic and free) testosterone are evaluated.
The level of total testosterone is measured in ng / dl or mol / L. The normal level of testosterone in the age range from 18 to 50 years old is considered to be 50-224 ng / dl.
Free testosterone is measured in pg / ml, pmol / L. The norm for men 18-55 years old is 1-28 pg / ml. The average concentration of testosterone is from 13 to 40 nmol / l or from 2 to 11 ng / ml (374-1152 ng / dl, 5.5-42 pg / ml).
Since testosterone levels change depending on age, it’s customary to divide a man’s life into age periods:
Testosterone is a key hormone when it comes to muscle building, so many guys do everything they can to keep it as high as possible.
Some guys take steroids (testosterone injections), but this can have some unpleasant side effects and dangerous consequences. Therefore, it is very important to ensure that this hormone does not exceed the upper limits of the norm.
Examples of deficiencies or deficiencies in men who have higher levels of testosterone are:
- Men tend to consume more alcohol.
- Men smoke more often.
- Men are more likely to be injured.
- According to some researchers, the higher the level of testosterone, the greater the likelihood of men participating in risky behavior (sexual risk, risk of injury and even criminal activity).
All the symptoms that are described here relate to the normal aging process, but there are cases when they can relate to the signs of several important factors.
These factors include:
- The reaction to certain drugs.
- Thyroid disorders.
- Excessive alcohol consumption.
If the results obtained do not fit into the range of normal indicators, then this may be due to conditions such as:
- Cancer of the ovaries or testicles.
- Testicular failure.
- Early or delayed puberty.
- Chronic diseases (such as diabetes or kidney disease).
- Severe obesity.
- Hypogonadism (the sex glands produce little or no hormones).
Worrying if your testosterone level is lower is quite normal. It must be remembered that a decrease in this male hormone is inevitable, as it is part of the natural aging process. If you are worried that there is any other reason, just talk to your doctor and get tested. The main thing to remember is that problems with testosterone levels can be easily solved.
The hormone value for men
The main amount of testosterone in men is produced in the gonads - testicles. An insignificant part of this androgen is formed in the adrenal glands. Its production is under the control of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. The newly synthesized hormone enters the bloodstream, where it combines with transport proteins - the sex-binding globulin and albumin. About 2% of testosterone in the blood is in a free state. It is this fraction that is capable of exerting a biological effect.
The role of the hormone in the prenatal period is the laying and development of male sexual characteristics. In puberty, testosterone is responsible for a change in appearance - the appearance of a beard, mustache, hair in the armpits and the pubic zone. There is a growth spurt, muscle tissue builds up, the voice becomes lower. Changes are taking place in the reproductive sphere - testicles, penis, prostate gland are growing in size and developing. In the testes, the process of sperm formation - spermatogenesis - starts.
In adult men, under the influence of testosterone, mood and motivation increase, libido increases, a special type of thinking is formed. The hormone has a beneficial effect on the metabolism of fats, promotes the formation of protein, improves the sensitivity of cells to insulin.
Conducting and decoding the analysis
Indications for the study of testosterone in men:
- diagnosis of hypogonadism - a condition associated with androgen deficiency,
- sexual dysfunction
- chronic prostatitis
- decreased libido.
Since the maximum content of the hormone in the blood is observed in the early morning hours, the analysis should be carried out no later than 08: 00-10: 00. Testosterone levels are determined twice.
The material is taken on an empty stomach. The day before the study, intense physical activity, exposure to stress factors, and alcohol intake are excluded. Contraindications to the appointment of a blood test for testosterone are viral and bacterial infections, exacerbation of chronic diseases. The result obtained in this case may be unreliable.
For the diagnosis of pathology associated with impaired testosterone synthesis, it is sufficient to determine the total fraction of the hormone. In order to calculate its active form, the concentration of the sex-binding protein is examined. The free androgen index is calculated as a percentage according to the formula: total testosterone level / CVH level * 100%.
To determine the degree of damage to the reproductive system, together with this hormone, the content of the pituitary gonadotropins is examined. These include luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating (FSH) hormones that regulate androgen secretion and spermatogenesis. Excessive production of gonadotropins in some pathologies stimulates the activity of testicles, and their lack slows down. With a decrease in testosterone production in the testes, LH and FSH levels increase, and with an increase, they decrease.
Deciphering the results of the hormonal profile in men:
|Total testosterone||Gonadotropins - LH and FSH||Interpretation|
|Lowered||Norm||Normogonadotropic hypogonadism. Possible causes are hyperprolactinemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and other chronic diseases|
|Lowered||Lowered||Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It occurs with damage to the pituitary gland and hypothalamus.|
|Lowered||Promoted||Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. It occurs with anomalies of development, damage and diseases of testicles|
|Promoted||Promoted||Gonadotropin-secreting tumors of various locations|
|Promoted||Lowered||Androgen-producing tumors of the testes, adrenal glands|
At different periods of life, the level of testosterone in men is different. Its production begins in the fetus from the 9th week of fetal development. After birth, the hormone content in boys and girls is almost the same. An increase in its secretion occurs shortly before puberty, at the age of about 9 years. At 18, the androgen content reaches the average values characteristic of an adult male.
The maximum level of the indicator is fixed at 25-30 years, then a gradual decrease in the amount of the hormone begins. At the age of 40, its concentration drops by 1-2% of the initial one. The natural aging process is accompanied by a decrease in the total and free fractions of testosterone. A significant increase in the level of sex-binding globulin, especially after 60 years, is exacerbated by the presence of concomitant chronic diseases.
Normal indicators of total testosterone depending on age:
|0 to 6 months||0.30-10.36 nmol / L||0.09–2.98 ng / ml|
|6 months-10 years||Less than 3.09 nmol / l||Less than 0.89 ng / ml|
|10-11 years old||1.02–3.27 nmol / L||0.29–0.94 ng / ml|
|12-14 years old||1.64–7.35 nmol / L||0.47–2.11 ng / ml|
|15-16 years old||7.82–21.92 nmol / L||2.25–6.31 ng / ml|
|17-18 years old||12.00–27.53 nmol / L||3.46–7.92 ng / ml|
|19–49 years old||11.10–27.53 nmol / L||3.17–7.92 ng / ml|
|50 years and older||8.60–23.4 nmol / L||2.47-6.73 ng / ml|
Norms of free testosterone in men:
|6–13 years old||Less than 4.6 pg / ml|
|13-19 years old||0.18-23.10 pg / ml|
|20–54 years old||1.00–28.28 pg / ml|
|55 years and older||0.70-21.45 pg / ml|
The concentration of sex-binding protein affects the level of free testosterone. The higher it is, the lower the ISA and the amount of biologically active fraction of androgen. With a decrease in CVD in the blood, the free testosterone index rises. Strengthening the synthesis of transport globulin is observed with thyrotoxicosis, hepatitis, cirrhosis. A decrease in CVH occurs in men when taking testosterone and glucocorticoids, hypothyroidism, excess insulin, and nephrotic syndrome.
Reference values of CVG at different ages are presented in the table:
|1–7 years old||41.8–188.7 nmol / L|
|8–10 years old||26.4–162.4 nmol / L|
|11–13 years old||14.9-107.8 nmol / L|
|14-16 years old||11.2–98.2 nmol / L|
|17–20 years old||9.7–49.6 nmol / L|
|21–49 years old||11.0–71.0 nmol / L|
|Over 50 years old||11.0–69.9 nmol / L|
Free testosterone index scores:
What is the level of testosterone in men
Sex hormone related to androgens is produced starting from the prenatal period. Testosterone plays a huge role in the body of a man, responsible for the functioning of the reproductive system, affecting all other functions. The level of anabolic steroid is determined by blood tests, but its deviation is not difficult to identify by visible symptoms.By maintaining normal testosterone levels, you can:
- keep health for a long time,
- prolong sex life
- postpone the onset of old age.
What affects testosterone in men
Every day, the body produces 5 to 7 mg of the hormone. This amount is enough for its normal functioning. The production of testosterone in men begins before birth and lasts a lifetime, changing its intensity depending on age, time of year and even days. In the process of synthesis of sex hormone involved:
- under the control of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, Leydig cells located in the tissues of the testicles,
- mesh area of the adrenal cortex.
Functions for which the hormone testosterone in men is responsible:
- anabolic - a steroid helps to increase muscle mass, bone density, the production of specific proteins in organs and glands,
- androgenic - the development of genitalia, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics, physique according to the male type,
- reproductive - provides potency, libido, erection, sperm production.
Due to the synthesis of sex hormone at a normal level, the following functions are carried out in the body of a man:
- Psychophysical - the appearance of a positive mood as a result of the production of endorphins. The development of aggression with increasing indicators, the mood to fight, reducing feelings of fear.
- Hematopoietic - effect on hematopoiesis - the process of development of blood cells, the production of erythropoietin by the kidneys.
Testosterone is common and free in men.
Sex hormone in the body in structure consists of three components. Total testosterone has two related and free states. The first of them, when combined with other substances, travels through the bloodstream. These include:
- SHBG - testosterone bound to globulin,
- hormone containing non-specific albumin protein in the structure.
The strongest effect on the body is exerted by free testosterone, the biologically active component of the steroid sex hormone, which does not contain proteins. With the participation of enzymes, androstenedione, it forms dihydrotestosterone - the strongest of the sex hormones in men. This chemical affects:
- puberty boys
- sex drive
- genital, prostate,
- maintaining potency
- regulation of sexual behavior.
The norm of testosterone in men
The hormone levels in the body are affected by many factors - lifestyle, food consumed, physical and psychological stress. But he himself determines the functioning of all systems. It is important to know what is the norm in order to compare indicators to identify deviations in the direction of increase or decrease and diagnose diseases that are associated with this. The values depend on the age of the man and are:
In what cases is it necessary to pass an analysis
Total testosterone is a sex hormone involved in the nervous, reproductive and circulatory systems. The substance is synthesized in the testes and adrenal cortex from cholesterol. About 5-10 g are produced per day. Serum levels of the hormone are regulated by the pituitary and hypothalamus.
There are 2 types of hormonal substance circulating in the vessels:
- Protein related. 60% form a complex with globulins and albumin, therefore, remain inactive.
- Free Testosterone (CT). It can be absorbed by the cells, have an androgenic effect on them. In an unbound state, not more than 5% of the hormone circulates. This amount is enough for the normal functioning of the genitals.
The level of the hormone is determined when symptoms of malfunction of the endocrine system, reproductive organs appear. An analysis to determine the concentration of testosterone is prescribed for:
- Klinefelter syndrome
- acne eruptions,
- chronic form of inflammation of the prostate gland,
- adrenal gland malignancies,
- decreased sexual arousal.
The level of free testosterone in men is detected with infertility or erectile dysfunction.
How to check male hormone levels
Before obtaining reliable examination results, it is necessary to properly prepare:
- refuse to eat 6-8 hours before the manipulation,
- in 2 days, if possible, stop taking hormonal, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial medications,
- for 1 day to stop smoking and drinking alcohol.
Blood sampling is carried out on an empty stomach until 10:00.
What should be the level depending on age
The highest amount of androgens in the blood is observed in adolescence, at about 14-17 years old. The norm of testosterone in men at 30 years of age is stabilized, indicators remain average for 5-10 years. At 35-40 years, the hormone content in the blood decreases. Every year, the level of sex hormones decreases by 2-3%. The values of the total and free levels of androgens differ in age. On average, the total indicator is 12-30 nmol / L. Free testosterone from 20 to 40 years old is 25-113%, after 40 years - about 20-120%.
In men, at the age of 40, inflammation of the organs of the reproductive system begins, at the age of 50 the risk of developing benign and malignant tumors increases, and erectile dysfunction often occurs. What is the norm of testosterone in men at 60 depends on the state of health of the patient himself. But in old age, the concentration of androgens should be at least 5 times lower than at 30 years. This is due to the development of age-related changes in the body. Free radicals accumulate in the tissues, the cells are depleted and cannot fully perform their functions.
You can follow the changes in the testosterone norm in men by age thanks to the following table:
|Age||Indicators of total hormone, nmol / l|
|Breasts up to a year||0,42-0,72|
|Preschoolers from 1 to 10 years old||0,1-1,12|
|The period from 10 to 12 years||0,1-2,37|
|Adolescence to 18 years||0,98-32,5|
|At the age of 18-25||8,64-29|
|From 25 to 35 years old||8,04-28,1|
|From 35 to 40 years old||7,76-27|
If testosterone rises or falls, going beyond the generally accepted norm, re-study. It excludes or confirms the presence of pathology. An excess of 10% indicates a hormonal imbalance in the body. Often in such a situation, the very behavior of a man changes: he becomes aggressive, irritable. Violation of the psychoemotional state negatively affects the work of the reproductive and circulatory systems.
The lack of free androgens also leads to a violation of the psychoemotional state and is manifested in the form of apathy, decreased performance, and depression. Exhaustion of the body, loss of muscle mass is observed. Fat metabolism is disturbed, a person gets fat. Against the background of pathological changes in the body, problems with the cardiovascular system appear: increased pressure, tachycardia.
The level of unbound androgens depends on age:
|Age years||Norm ng / dl|
|18 to 69 years old||45-225|
|Over 70 years old||6-73|
Reasons for deviations
Blood testosterone levels may deviate from the norm in men due to:
- cigarette and alcohol abuse
- stress, disorders of the psychoemotional state,
- unbalanced diet, deficiency of vitamins, mineral compounds,
- autoimmune disorders.
Low level reasons
Testosterone, the norm of which in an unbound state does not exceed 30 pg / ml, may decrease with the development of the disease. The causes of androgen reduction are:
- lack of exercise
- constant stress, depression,
- the use of a large amount of plant food, the lack of meat products in the diet,
- smoking, alcoholism,
- hormone therapy
- adverse environmental situation in the metropolis,
- lack of regular sex life.
Why the indicator can be increased
A high level of testosterone does not always indicate the presence of pathology.Increased concentration is natural in adolescence when puberty begins. But after 18 years, exceeding the upper limit of the norm indicates the presence of:
- pituitary adenomas,
- lesions of the hypothalamus,
- malignant neoplasms of the prostate and testes,
- low hormonal activity of the adrenal glands,
- adrenal dysfunction,
- an overdose of anabolic steroids with building skeletal muscles by bodybuilders.
In childhood, deviations from the norm lead to increased hair growth throughout the body, acne and dermatological diseases. In adults, mood swings are observed. A man with an increased level of the hormone becomes too impulsive, emotionally unstable. There is an increase in sexual activity, the development of skeletal muscles. In some cases, alopecia appears.
What to do with deviations
If there are severe deviations in testosterone levels in men, they are recorded for consultation with an andrologist who prescribes drugs after instrumental and laboratory diagnostics. Drugs are necessary to bring the hormone content back to normal.
Slight fluctuations in hormone levels indicate age-related changes in the body that occur every year. To stabilize testosterone in such a situation, it is enough to lead a healthy lifestyle:
- if possible, refuse to take psychotropic drugs
- exclude smoking and drinking alcohol,
- increase the number of fruits and vegetables in the diet so that they make up to 60% of the entire menu,
- get enough sleep, control the level of physical activity.
How to lower
If the indicator exceeds the maximum permissible level, it is possible to develop disturbances in the endocrine system. To prevent the development of diabetes, liver problems and the development of acne, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of testosterone. To do this, it is recommended:
- normalize the regime of the day, sleep at least 6 hours a day, do not expose the body to high mental and physical stress,
- avoid stress
- limit the amount of meat and fatty foods in the diet,
- do not abuse potatoes, sugar and legumes that cause estrogen synthesis,
- reduce the amount of salt when cooking.
Doctors may prescribe medication. To reduce testosterone prescribed: magnesia, cyclophosphamide, Tegretol, Ketoconazole. Medications inhibit the activity of the pituitary gland, which stimulates the production of androgens and regulates the adrenal glands.
How to increase
If the content of the hormone in the blood slightly differs from the indicated norm, then it can be increased naturally:
- give up bad habits or limit them as much as possible,
- sleep up to 8 hours a day,
- exercise regularly at least 3-4 times a week,
- balance the diet, enrich the menu with coarse fiber, minerals and protein products,
- avoid stressful situations.
When the value of testosterone changes due to illness, drug therapy is prescribed. An andrologist prescribes medications that stimulate hormone production by the adrenal cortex and testes. High efficiency is observed when using the following drugs:
- Sustanon 250. Available as an injection. It is necessary for rapid muscle building, increased testosterone, and increased appetite. In parallel, the drug raises the serum hemoglobin level in the blood.
- Androgel. The gel is used only to increase the amount of testosterone. The hormone level is restored within 3-7 days, depending on age.
- Nebido. The drug is injected into the deep muscle tissue. Designed to treat hypogonadism. It does not provoke the development of hormonal imbalance, is well tolerated by the body.
- Andriol. It is made in capsule form.Replenishes the deficiency of male hormone in the body, normalizes general metabolism. It is recommended to be taken together with fatty foods, so that the adrenal glands and testes receive the cholesterol necessary for the production of testosterone.
- Omnadren. Injections of the drug have a direct effect on testosterone receptors on the cell membrane. A potent drug is prescribed with caution, because in 8 cases out of 10 it is possible to develop side effects: allergies, erectile dysfunction, dyspeptic disorders. It does not cause addiction.
When conducting drug therapy, tests are regularly taken until the hormone concentration reaches a normal level.
Treatment is canceled when in the male body the androgen content becomes equal to 12-25 nmol / L.
In the presence of chronic diseases, it is recommended to donate blood to determine the hormone 1-2 times a year.
When conducting replacement therapy, the indicator varies depending on age:
|Age||Norm, nmol / l|
|The norm of total testosterone in men aged 30-49||23|
|The norm of testosterone in men aged 50-79||17|
|In old age, after 80 years||15|
In addition to taking hormonal drugs, the hormone level is stabilized with the help of dietary supplements:
Nutritional supplements contain herbal extracts. With regular use, vitamins and mineral components stimulate the natural production of hormone in the body, improve microcirculation and increase potency.
Testosterone blood test
Sex hormone levels are determined by examining venous blood. Before the analysis should be prepared in advance. Doctors prescribe a check if there are problems:
- decreased libido
- erectile disfunction,
- high cholesterol
- impaired insulin production,
- adrenal tumors,
- long-term use of hormonal drugs.
A blood test helps to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe treatment. Material is taken in the morning, on an empty stomach. In this case, you need to consider:
- in men, the highest testosterone levels are observed from 4 to 8 in the morning,
- in two days you need to stop taking hormones,
- 12 hours before the study, do not eat,
- 30 minutes before the start, do not smoke, remove physical activity, be calm.
Low testosterone in men
The decrease in the number of sex hormones is determined by external signs and test results. A low concentration of testosterone is considered a deviation from the norm in a smaller direction, taking into account the age of the man. This situation requires adjustment, otherwise, hormonal imbalance leads to serious problems. Low testosterone in men provokes:
- decreased sperm viability,
- impotence development,
- arterial hypertension
- heart attack.
Symptoms of Low Testosterone
When the level of sex hormone is below normal, this can be determined by the characteristic symptoms. In adolescence, there is slow growth, the lack of development of the penis, scrotum, secondary sexual characteristics. In men with a lack of androgen appears:
- increased sweating,
- muscle weakness
- breast growth
- decreased erection
- reduction in hair growth,
- decreased sexual desire,
- weakening of clarity of mind,
- flushing of the face
- feeling of heat.
Drug therapy solves the problem of increasing androgen levels, but requires daily use - hormones should be received regularly. Medications to increase libido, testosterone, are used in several forms:
- Androderm patch - sticks to the body, releases the hormone gradually, needs to be worn for 20 hours, replaced with a new one,
- Androgel - applied to the surface of the shoulder, abdomen once a day, does not rub - you need to wait when it is absorbed,
- Andriol - tablets, for better absorption, take with fatty foods, quickly increase the amount of androgen in the blood.
Sources of Testosterone for Men
To increase the amount of hormone in the body, you need to eat healthy food. Increase the secretion of products containing beneficial ingredients. For men's health you need to apply:
- Minerals Zinc - seafood, pumpkin seeds, nuts. Selenium - kidneys, mushrooms, magnesium - cereals, legumes.
- Vitamins C, E, D, group B - berries, citrus fruits, vegetables, vitamin complexes.
- Fats as a source of cholesterol - the building material for testosterone - in balance with proteins, carbohydrates.
- Clean water - at least one and a half liters.
A safe way to adjust the level of sex hormone is to use traditional medicine. Compositions based on natural products, medicinal plants, help solve the problem of imbalance. Recommended:
- in the morning swallow a teaspoon of fenugreek seeds with water,
- drink tea with ginger several times a day,
- add lovage root to dishes,
- drink infusion of may nettle leaves in red wine.
An increase in the concentration of sex hormone changes the character of a man, making him aggressive, vicious. Athletes try to lift it artificially in order to build muscles, seem strong, sexy. This has a downside, perhaps:
- the development of serious diseases
- violation of the functions of the genitals,
- the emergence of psychological problems.
What you need to know about androgen
Testosterone is the primary hormone in the male body. It is also commonly called androgen. It is formed in the bulk in the testes and in the smallest in the adrenal glands.
Testosterone is responsible for the formation of secondary sexual characteristics in men and sexual activity. Also, the hormone in question is in women, but at lower rates.
Like the production of other hormones, testosterone levels are controlled by the pituitary gland.
Androgen is in the blood in a free and bound state. Free takes about 3% of the total number of this hormone. The remainder is associated testosterone with proteins: globulin and albumin.
Compounds with globulin are inactive, but the free form and associated with albumin is a biologically important part of total testosterone. It is active and has an effect on the male body.
Under the influence of testosterone, special male signs appear in appearance, muscle tissue is formed in a certain way and fat is burned. This is only a small part of the important physiological processes that occur thanks to this hormone and make a man who he is.
With the balanced operation of the pituitary, testes and adrenal glands, there is no reason for concern. If the norms of testosterone deviate from the standard criteria, the result is visible on the face.
Increased levels of sex hormone can lead to serious problems. It is necessary to consult specialists in case of symptoms of its increase. A high concentration of androgen leads to the development of:
- prostate adenomas
- impaired testicular function,
- urination problems
- premature ejaculation
- erectile dysfunction
- prostate cancer
- cardiovascular disease
- bleeding disorders,
- memory impairment,
- mental disorders.
An increased concentration of the hormone during puberty does not require treatment. In the presence of tumors of the adrenal gland, pituitary gland, testicles, hormone therapy or surgery is necessary. For the treatment of pathology recommend:
- exclude the use of steroid drugs,
- increase physical activity
- sleep at least 7 hours
- do not overwork
- maintain a balance between work and rest,
- less nervous
- eat more greens, meat,
- exclude sugar, fatty, salty foods,
- consume foods containing phytoestrogens - red grapes, soybeans, fish oil,
- take medicine as prescribed by your doctor.
Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.
Testosterone change with age
The level of androgen directly depends on the growing up of a man. The table below shows the normal indicators of age-related changes.
|Age||Norm of testosterone nmol / liter |
(Nanomol per liter)
|Up to 1 year||0,42-0,72|
|From 1 year to 7 years||0,1-1,12|
|From 7 to 13 years||0,1-2,37|
|13 to 18 years old||0,98-38,5|
|At 30 years old||8,64-29|
As can be seen from the table for men by age, the level of testosterone changes and thereby determines the changes that occur in the body. The data presented indicate that the first surge of androgen occurs at the time of puberty, and a decrease in the hormone occurs at the age of 60.
All about male testosterone levels
Testosterone is the most prominent representative of steroid hormones (androgens).
Many scientific and pseudo-scientific publications are devoted to him, and his role in the male body is one of the favorite topics of discussion among physicians, athletes, and even nutritionists.
Some believe that a high level of this hormone is the key to a full healthy life for every man, while others warn of his hidden "cunning".
Imbalance of testosterone in the body
Malfunctioning hormones are manifested in the body by noticeable changes. Androgens are no exception. The reason for going to the doctor can be symptoms such as:
- poor erection
- decreased sexual desire,
- the manifestation of female outlines in the figure,
- decrease in muscle mass and increase in fatty,
- changing the sound of the voice.
Such symptoms indicate a decrease in testosterone. With its increase, the man on the contrary becomes more aggressive, irritable. A sharp change in the hormone leads to serious male diseases that will certainly affect a person’s usual life. This list includes:
- violation of the reproductive system (impotence, infertility),
- cardiovascular disease (heart attack),
- mental disorders (depressive states, excessive aggression),
- metabolic disorder (obesity).
What is testosterone: general information and aspects of the effect on the male body
Testosterone is a specific chemical substance, sex hormonewhich in many ways determines the quality of functioning of the reproductive, nervous and cardiovascular systems of men.
It is synthesized mainly by the testes (Leydig cells), as well as the adrenal cortex. The main component of the molecule is cholesterol. From 4 to 12 g of the hormone is produced per day.
The intensity of production is regulated by substances secreted by the pituitary and hypothalamus.
All testosterone circulating in the blood (general) is divided into 2 types:
- Transportable Protein Transport, 60% of which is unavailable due to the connection with globulins. The rest - loosely coupled (with albumin) - has a certain bioavailability, is involved in a number of regulatory processes (for example, prevents the deposition of fat, controls skin grease),
- Free (not associated with proteins) - is able to invade target cells and exert anabolic or androgenic effect on them. The amount of testosterone of this type does not exceed 4%, but it is he who determines the formation of sexual characteristics and the degree of sexuality.
From the free testosterone with the participation of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase (located in the seminal vesicles, skin and prostate), its most active form, dihydrotestosterone, is formed. Excess hormone provokes excessive sebum, acne, prostate hypertrophy.
Aspects of the effects of testosterone on the male body:
- Responsible for the development and functioning of the testicles, penis, seminal vesicles and prostate gland.
- It takes a direct part in the formation of secondary sexual characteristics: an increase in muscle volume, hair growth, formation and compaction of bone tissue.
- It determines the mood, character, level of libido, fertility, voice timbre.
- It affects the metabolism of carbohydrates, cholesterol and lipids.
- Participates in the production of endorphins and insulin.
Men with high testosterone are more prone to aggression, uncontrolled outbreaks of anger, resentment. This effect of excess hormone often makes teenagers uncontrollable. Against the background of elevated androgens, it is easier for a man to conceive a child, but his further behavior in terms of care and education often leaves much to be desired.
As for appearance, then men of the androgen type are characterized by an athletic type of figure, relief and responsive muscles, a low voice. They often have to deal with early signs of baldness, blackheads (especially on the face and back).
In men with reduced testosterone there is a tendency to hoarding, excessive thrift. History shows that the vast majority of eunuchs (castrates) were very prosperous.
Eunuchs were considered faithful servants and ideal schemers. They often became "gray cardinals" with high-ranking persons.
Men with genetically engineered low levels of testosterone (for example, the Japanese) have better taste buds, which makes them excellent tasters.
Externally, the low level of androgens is manifested by sagging muscles, a rounded abdomen against an unexpressed shoulder girdle, and enlarged mammary glands. (not necessary).
Regarding the connection between testosterone levels and baldness, experts still do not have a single opinion. Some believe that there is no direct correlation (according to the analysis of medical records of balding men), others see a direct negative effect of dihydrotestosterone on hair loss.
Testosterone changes not only with age. The norm in men, if the level of the hormone fluctuates throughout the year, seasonality and even time of day. In the morning, there is a surge in the hormone, and in the evening the indicator decreases. Of course, in a laboratory study, only daily fluctuations and features of the age stage are taken into account.
A referral for analysis can be obtained from an andrologist, endocrinologist or reproductologist. According to the norm, venous blood sampling for analysis is carried out in a medical institution by a specialist. If the patient has a disease that affects the normal level of globulin in the blood, then an analysis is prescribed not for total, but for free testosterone.
Such a blood test has a number of features and limitations. You can not donate blood after:
- physiotherapeutic procedures
- Ultrasound research,
At an interview with a doctor, it is necessary to talk about all the drugs that the patient is taking, of particular importance is hormonal.
The day before analysis, you should exclude:
- excessive physical activity
- alcoholic drinks
- greasy food.
- Blood sampling is carried out in the morning and on an empty stomach.
Similar laboratory tests are carried out in various medical institutions licensed to conduct laboratory tests. The choice remains with the patient.
We recommend reading an article on how to increase testosterone.
Factors that determine hormone levels
Testosterone levels may be lowered from birth. (due to genetic characteristics or pathologies), but in most cases hormone synthesis is influenced by external factors:
- Physical exercise. Intensive training against a background of energy deficiency caused by a lack of nutrition and sleep leads to a decrease in the amount of the hormone. Moderate power loads with adequate replenishment of energy costs - contribute to its increase. Prolonged exhausting aerobic training can temporarily reduce the level of male hormone by 2 times,
- Excess weight. The structure of the testosterone molecule is very similar to estrogen (an androgen antagonist) - the formulas differ in only one carbon atom. For this reason, male hormone is easily converted into female hormone under the influence of the aromatase enzyme (actively produced by adipose tissue). The fuller the man, the more testosterone inhibitors in his body,
- Severe stressaccompanied by a powerful release of cortisol, cause a short-term decrease in male hormone, and chronic anxiety suppresses its synthesis for a long time, which provokes androgen deficiency,
- Bad habits. Intoxication with tobacco smoke and alcohol leads to disruption of the functioning of testicular tissue, as well as the liver, which is responsible for the deactivation of excess estrogen.
A decrease in testosterone is also observed with a number of pathologies:
- Cardiovascular diseases.
- Cirrhosis of the liver.
- Pathology of the testes, adrenal glands, pituitary gland or hypothalamus.
Click on image to enlarge
Often the cause of reduced testosterone is a lack of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). Normally, the activity of this body is regulated by the pituitary gland.
If the gland goes out of control due to the development of a tumor or other pathologies, then the pituitary gland begins to work "for wear", stimulating the synthesis of prolactin.
The result is an imbalance in the direction of an increase in female hormones, which prevents the conversion of testosterone into an active form.
Some drugs also have an overwhelming effect on the production of male hormones, for example: drugs to lower blood pressure, diuretics, antidepressants, sleeping pills, antiandrogens.
Pathological excess of testosterone can be triggered by hyperthyroidism, steroid use, and tumors of the testes and adrenal glands. Frequent severe stresses can cause a stably high level of androgens (the body is constantly in a state of “alert”).
Testosterone levels are determined in the laboratory by analysis of venous blood. One of the most accurate methods is electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA).
Unit of measurement - nanomole per liter (nmol / l) or nanomol per gram (nmol / g). Preparation for the procedure consists in refusing food and drinks. (except water) before blood sampling.
Since the biomaterial is delivered in the morning (preferably up to 10 hours), then abstinence time will be 3-4 hours.
Diagnostic value is represented by total and free testosterone. The average norm of testosterone in men (the total amount of the hormone in the absence of serious pathologies) is from 12 to 33 nmol / l, free - from 4.5 to 30.4 pg / ml (picograms per milliliter), bioactive - 3.5-12 nmol / l.
Also measured free testosterone index, defined as the ratio of the amount of unbound hormone to the volume of circulating globulin. In men aged 20 to 50 years, the value of this indicator varies from 24.5 to 113.3%after 50 - from 19.3 to 118.4%.
- The test price for testosterone is from 600 r for determining the total amount of the hormone, from 1200 r - for determining the level of free.
- The rates of total testosterone used in clinics are shown in table 1.
|Age||Lower limit of normal||Upper limit of normal|
|Children from 1 to 7 years old||0,1||1,12|
The scatter of values within adult age categories is quite large. This is due to differences in lifestyle, nutrition, and health status.The general trend of age-related changes in the amount of testosterone in men is shown in table 2.
Table 2. Change in testosterone levels with age
|Age||Level change (in%)|
|20-30||Peak hormone levels|
|40||1.5-3 (free testosterone)|
|After 50||0.5-1.6 (total testosterone)|
|60-70||The amount of hormone in free form is about 20% of the average level, which was 20 years old, in general form - 60%|
An important diagnostic role is also played by the pituitary hormones - LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). The interpretation of the analyzes is shown in table 3.
Table 3. Determination of the hormonal profile based on the analysis of the level of testosterone, LH, FSH
|Testosterone total||LH and FSH||Interpretation of Results|
|Below normal||Norm||Normogonadotropic hypogonadism. Causes: Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, Hyperprolactinemia|
|Below normal||Below normal||Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Reasons: pathology of the pituitary gland, hypothalamus|
|Below normal||Above norm||Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Causes: underdevelopment or testicular disease|
|Above norm||Above norm||The presence of tumors synthesizing LH and FSH|
|Above norm||Below normal||The presence of tumors (testes or adrenal glands) that synthesize androgens|
The results of the tests should be interpreted by the doctor who prescribed the tests.. Self-interpretation with the help of online services and attempts to correct the hormonal level can lead to irreparable consequences.
Before going to the doctor, you can independently take a test questionnaire on the level of testosterone at home or purchase an express test in a pharmacy (it is rare in free sale).
To diagnose a decrease in testosterone levels at home, there is the most popular questionnaire - ADAM (Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males questionnaire). It takes only 5-10 minutes to complete it.
It is possible to identify androgen deficiency by answering 10 short questions. For each, the answer is “yes” or “no”, after which you will see the result.
The test does not give 100% accuracy. Question number 5 with a positive answer most accurately describes a decrease in testosterone levels.
Hormone Recovery Techniques depend on the diagnosis and the cause of the deviation cause.
You can increase low testosterone levels in the following ways:
- Stimulation of the synthesis of own androgens by the introduction of medications (chorionic gonadotropin),
- The introduction of external testosterone (hormone replacement therapy). The hormone deficiency can be compensated for by injectable, transdermal, sublingual (under the tongue) and oral types of drugs,
- Correction of the hormonal background through lifestyle changes (more moderate physical activity) and dietary review (less flour, fat and sweet, more fiber and protein).
You can improve the functioning of the gonads intake of vitamins for the production of testosterone (A, D, C, E, group B), zinc, selenium, magnesium. Minor deviations of androgens from the norm are successfully corrected by dietary supplements based on amino acids, bitterness extracts, eurycoma, creeping Tribulus, ginseng. More detailed information on ways to increase testosterone.
Natural plant-based products (dietary supplements). “Tribulus” (extract of Creeping Tribulus), “Inter-S Tribulustan plus” (extracts of bitterness, ginger, fenugreek), “Ikariin amino plus” (extract of bitterness, amino acids), “Forskolin” (extract of coleus of forskolia).
Increased testosterone in addition to a negative effect on the appearance of a man can lead to testicular atrophy, cardiovascular pathologies, prostate adenoma, thrombosis. Antiandrogen drugs are prescribed to normalize the amount of the hormone. (Finasteride, Carbamazepine).
With testosterone above normal, you should refuse to take tonic supplements with icariin or tribulus, reduce the amount of protein in the diet (you can partially replace natural meat with soy).
Slightly lower the level of the hormone, reduce the degree of aggressiveness and excitability can tea with peppermint, infusion of flax seeds, licorice or hops.
Learn more about how to lower testosterone levels when it is exceeded.
What is the normal testosterone level in men: table, age and related indicators
Testosterone is a powerful hormone, and its ability to control sex drive (as well as regulate sperm production), stimulate muscle mass and increase energy. His ability even includes influence on human behavior (for example, aggression or competitiveness).
Not surprisingly, a decrease in testosterone levels would cause a big commotion. However, this phenomenon is considered a natural part of aging.
The same degree of deviation of testosterone from the norm can affect men in different ways: some clearly feel problems with well-being, appearance and sex, others do not notice any significant changes in the quality of life.
Symptoms are largely determined by the cause of the excess or deficiency of the hormone, so a single blood test may not be informative.
If there are deviations, doctors prescribe a dynamic study of the level of various types of testosterone in order to exclude a temporary factor (stress, overwork, diet features, abstinence).
General testosterone in men: norm, symptoms and causes of deficiency
Testosterone is the main hormone in men, which forms the primary sexual characteristics, and is also responsible for reproductive function. Therefore, it is very important to maintain its level. What is total testosterone in men, his the norm by age, consider in more detail.
The value of total testosterone in men
This hormone plays a crucial role among all the androgens produced by the male body. Its active increase is observed during puberty, when a young man gradually turns into a man. Thanks to testosterone, the following symptoms begin to appear in young people:
- hair appears on the face and throughout the body,
- nocturnal emissions,
- sexual attraction to women of the opposite sex.
And also this hormone affects muscle growth, making a man stronger and more attractive.
Considerwhat is the difference between total and free testosterone. Free testosterone is a fraction that is not bound to proteins. Concerning total testosterone in men, then free hormone is one of its components.
Factors Affecting Blood Testosterone
The level of this hormone in the blood is not always stable. Its decrease or increase depends on the impact of various external factors, namely:
- Times of Day. According to medical research, testosterone is common and free in men rises at night. During the day, its level gradually decreases. That's why general testosterone test in men surrenders in the morning.
- Age. The older the man, the more stable the level of testosterone in his body. This factor must also be considered when conducting general testosterone test.
- Season. In the autumn and winter, the level of male hormone increases, while in summer this indicator decreases markedly.
- Nutrition. The diet directly affects the level of testosterone in the male body. Foods that are high in protein and fat contribute to this.
- Stress and physical overwork. Emotional and physical stress negatively affects the amount of the hormone. This state inhibits its production.
- Chronic diseases during exacerbation.Most often, this condition contributes to the suppression of free hormone.
- The use of potent medications. Also in this group include narcotic substances.
If the result testosterone analysis showed that this indicator is underestimated, then a man is assigned to repeat the study. In the case when nothing changes, the patient is assigned a number of additional tests that will help identify the exact cause of the decrease in the hormone.
Testosterone Age and Norms
The definition of the norm of this indicator is based on age characteristics. Total testosterone: normal for men by age, table:
|1||Under 25 years old||2,37–38,5|
|2||25-30 years old||8,64–29,0|
|3||30-50 years old||8,04–28,1|
|4||Over 50 years old||7,76–27|
Every year after 30 years of age, this hormone decreases by 2-3% in men. After 50 years, the level of the female hormone estrogen increases.
Testosterone levels in men, possible deviations and normal
Testosterone, the norm in men from 18-50 years of age should be in the range of 5.76-30.43 nmol / l, is called the male sex hormone, androgen. It is present in both men and women.
In the male body, it is produced in the testes and in small amounts in the adrenal glands. In women, a small amount is secreted by the ovaries and adrenal cortex.
The norm of testosterone in the female body (over 18 years) is in the range of 0.42-4.51 nmol / L.
Testosterone is a steroid hormone that has a certain effect on the body and some of its functions:
Testosterone tends to accumulate in certain tissues, such as:
- seminiferous tubules,
- seminal vesicles,
Androgen production is regulated by other hormones synthesized by the pituitary gland:
- luteinizing hormone
- follicle-stimulating hormones.
In medicine, 3 types of testosterone are distinguished:
- Free testosterone (which does not react with other substances) - 2%.
- Testosterone bound to globulin (proteins) - 57%.
- Testosterone bound to albumin - 40%.
Free androgen has biological activity. It remains active for several days. Androgen is often excreted from the body, not having time to fulfill its functions. Testosterone bound to albumin breaks down easily (releases the hormone periodically). Protein bonding is stable. At the same time, its activity decreases.
Free testosterone during fetal development affects the formation of primary sexual characteristics. During puberty, he is responsible for the formation of secondary sexual characteristics. A change in its level may indicate the following pathologies:
- chromosomal diseases,
- pathologies of androgen production,
- tumors in the adrenal glands,
- decreased sexual activity in men.
SHBG is a sex hormone binding globulin produced in the liver. The following factors can affect the increase in SHBG levels:
- cirrhosis of the liver.
Albumin is synthesized by the liver. Testosterone associated with albumin is called conditionally free (as it is easily destroyed). In the puberty period, the release of testosterone into the blood is activated in boys. External manifestations are as follows:
- nipple swelling
- penis and testis development
- hair growth in the groin, in the armpits, on the face,
- there is a sexual desire,
- increased secretion of the sebaceous glands,
- joint and muscle pain
- character changes, aggressive behavior.
Changes in mood during puberty, aggressive behavior caused by a hormonal explosion are not treated. A diet that excludes fast carbohydrates, fatty foods, and energy drinks is recommended. It is worth eating foods rich in protein, calcium, and iron.In some cases, the use of sedative infusions is required.
Testosterone levels are measured in special hormone laboratories. Depending on what methods and instruments are used, the androgen level is expressed in nmol / l, ng / ml, ng / dl. With age, normal testosterone levels in men may change (see
Testosterone level table). In practical medicine, the results of free and bound hormone are uninformative. More information is provided by blood test values for free and affordable testosterone. There are many reasons for its secretion.
The following factors can affect testosterone levels in men:
- lifestyle (physical activity, smoking, alcohol, nutrition),
- the presence of chronic diseases (diabetes, tuberculosis, hypertension, cirrhosis, bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, alcoholism, HIV, atherosclerosis),
- taking glucocorticoids,
- adrenal insufficiency,
- genital injuries
- the use of anabolic steroids,
- congestion reactions of certain medications.
In the event of stressful situations, the hormone adrenaline is released into the body, which inhibits the secretion of testosterone.
Chronic diseases can affect the functioning of the pituitary and hypothalamus (they regulate hormone production). In addition to the above factors, androgen levels can vary throughout the day. In the morning, its level reaches its maximum value. By evening, its level becomes minimal.
The phenomenon of testosterone deficiency is called hypogonadism. This situation can occur with decreased testicular function, insufficient production of hormones by the pituitary gland that regulate androgen production. In this case, the following pathologies are observed:
- obesity with a pronounced "beer" belly,
- increased sweating
- metabolic decline
- violation of the water-salt balance,
- weight loss,
- brittle bones
- muscle weakness
- reduced skin turgor,
- weakness, insomnia, irritability, decreased ability to work,
- a sudden sensation of heat
- periodic redness of the skin of the face, chest,
- hair loss,
- breast enlargement
- weakened erection,
- decreased libido
How to prepare for analysis
In order to get the most reliable test result for the male hormone, you need to properly prepare for its delivery. To do this, a man must adhere to such rules:
- venous blood donation should be done in the morning,
- before the study, do not eat for 8 hours, that is, you do not need to eat at night,
- if a man has such a bad habit as smoking, then to get a reliable result, it is better to quit smoking 1 week before venous blood sampling,
- try to avoid stress for several days before taking the test,
- do not go in for sports the day before blood sampling,
- exclude the use of potent drugs for 2 days before the study.
Important to remember! Ignoring the listed rules may lead to the result of the analysis being unreliable! As a result of this, re-examination will be required.
Reduced androgen levels can lead to unpleasant consequences, including depression, loss of interest in life. Elevated levels of total testosterone cannot be considered a positive phenomenon. If this value is exceeded, then the patient has the following diseases:
- prostate cancer
- aggressive behavior,
- inflammation of the sebaceous glands,
- hair loss,
- liver disease
- cardiovascular diseases,
- decreased sperm production,
- sleep apnea (breath stops uncontrollably for a period of 10 seconds to 3 minutes) can trigger a stroke.
An increase in testosterone levels may be the result of the following ailments:
- Itsenko-Cushing's syndrome,
- testosterone-producing neoplasms in the testes,
- genetic abnormalities
- decrease hormone binding proteins
- increased physical exertion.
Diagnostics comes down to taking a blood test for the presence of total, free and bound testosterone. For analysis, blood is taken from a vein. If necessary, the analysis is repeated. To get reliable indicators, you must follow these recommendations:
- refrain from drinking alcohol for a week until blood is taken,
- abstain from smoking 4 hours before blood sampling,
- reduce physical activity,
- stop taking drugs that affect the level of androgen,
- try to avoid stressful situations
- An analysis is given in the morning on an empty stomach (before this, you can’t eat for 12 hours).
If general testosterone test showed that this indicator is underestimated, a man can observe such ailments:
- reduction of hair on the chest, body and face,
- obesity, overweight,
- muscle weakness, sedentary lifestyle,
- enlargement of the mammary glands,
- increased sweating
- problems with erectile function,
- decreased mental ability.
A prolonged stay in this condition can lead to the development of chronic pathologies, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver and others.
Therefore, it is very important to begin timely treatment when detecting reduced testosterone.
Symptoms and causes of testosterone deficiency
The lack of this hormone in the body of a man causes many ailments. He becomes more irritable, lethargic, prone to prolonged depression. The following symptoms also indicate a decrease in the hormone in the blood of a young person:
- weight loss due to muscles,
- fast overwork
- chronic fatigue
- increased body fat
- decreased sexual desire,
- violation of erectile function.
The main causes of lower testosterone in men are certain diseases of the testicles and other organs of the genitourinary system. And also the most common prerequisites for the lack of this hormone can serve:
- Uncontrolled or frequent use of alcoholic beverages. The ethanol that they contain inhibits the production of testosterone.
- Overweight. Overweight prevents the synthesis of this hormone. Obese men over time begin to acquire visual female traits. They have enlarged mammary glands, thinning hair, hips become wide. You can normalize the situation with regular exercise. At the same time, power loads have maximum efficiency.
Important to remember! If total or free testosterone is lowered, you need to contact a specialist who will give the necessary recommendations for increasing this indicator!
If testosterone is elevated
Testosterone is common, the norm in men is nmol / l - 5.76-30.43. If this indicator shifts up, then this is also not a normal state. A young man who has this indicator is overstated, may experience such ailments:
- causeless attacks of uncontrolled aggression,
- excessive excitability
- an increase in hairline on the body and on the face,
- the appearance of acne and acne on the face in excessive quantities.
If increased total testosterone in men a long period, this can lead to pathological processes in the body.
The structure of cells at the DNA level is disrupted, which may lead to testicular atrophy in the future.
That is why young people should pay due attention to increased testosterone, that is, take appropriate measures to normalize this indicator.
How to lower your blood hormone
If a young man notices uncontrolled sex drive, inappropriate erection, causeless aggression, this indicates that increased total testosterone. You can reduce this indicator in the following ways:
- The use of medications. They are assigned individually, taking into account the characteristics of the body of each patient. Usually, to normalize the condition, a course of drugs is prescribed to improve the adrenal glands or reduce the activity of the pituitary gland.
- Compliance with a specialized diet. Reduce total and free testosterone using a special diet, which must be observed no longer than 10 days. From the daily diet should be completely excluded meat products and semi-finished products, namely: meat, meatballs, dumplings, sausages, sausages and more. It is also required to refrain from sweet foods and drinks. Even tea or coffee should be drunk without adding sugar. In addition to these products, testosterone can be reduced by eliminating potatoes and legumes for 1 week.
- Physical exercise. If increased total testosterone in men, 3-4 times a week to go to the gym. At the same time, training should be with the maximum energy consumption. Go to moderate physical activity after the hormone levels return to normal.
In men who do not play sports in everyday life, the hormone rises due to the development of an adrenal tumor. Normalize the condition only by the surgical method. After surgery, testosterone will be normal.
You can also lower the level of the hormone in the blood with the help of alternative medicine. The most common recipes in this case are:
- Red clover. Dried flowers of this plant in an amount of 100 g should be poured 1 liter of boiling water. Leave to infuse for 2 hours. At the end of this time, drink a ready-made infusion of 2 glasses 3-4 times a day.
- Liquorice root. It can be purchased at any pharmacy. In order to reduce testosterone, it is necessary to chew licorice root for 5 minutes 3 times a day. This will not only help normalize the level of the hormone, but it will also be an excellent prevention of colds, that is, it will strengthen the immune system.
- Angelica root. To prepare the infusion should be in a thermos. Place chopped roots in a container, pour boiling water over it. Leave to infuse for 24 hours. After this time, drink the finished infusion of 0.5 cups 3 times a day.
Before using traditional medicine to reduce the hormone, it is imperative to consult a specialist. After all, their long reception can lead to a strong decrease in this indicator.
Why does the body need testosterone?
The main sex hormone in men is produced by the adrenal cortex, and is also synthesized from cholesterol by Leydig cells. He is responsible for androgenization and virilization.
Testosterone is associated with sexual function, but that's not all that it can influence.
Androgens ensure the normal development of muscle and bone tissue, and also guarantee the production of sperm for fertilization.
Steroid hormone levels affect mood. A low concentration is characterized by an apathetic state, while a high one is presented, excited, even somewhat aggressive.
Testosterone levels are determined by a blood test. Such an analysis is necessary when the body exhibits typical symptoms of deviations in the number of androgens. Fluctuations in testosterone in men occur throughout life, which will be the norm. A persistent decrease or excess is a dangerous condition requiring treatment.
The testosterone indicator in men is a significant diagnostic sign of endocrine pathologies in the body. Its deviation leads to changes in appearance, physiological processes and behavior.
Steroid hormone affects the ability to have sexual intercourse, well-being, the severity of male traits, sexual capabilities and many other factors. The main functions of this androgen are considered to be stimulation of muscle growth and ensuring the normal functioning of the organs of the reproductive system.
Note! A typical representative of diseases arising from a decrease in testosterone will be prostatitis.
Many men face this pathology, more often inflammation of the prostate gland is diagnosed in the elderly.
There is the concept of total testosterone in men, it includes the amount of androgens in a bound and unbound state. Its binding occurs with globulins and albumin. Biologically active is considered to be associated with globulin and free.
Normal indicator and pathology
What is the norm of testosterone in men of different ages:
- adolescence - up to 12-102 nmol / l,
- from 25 to 35 years old - remains at a high level from 13 to 75 nmol / l,
- after 35 to 45 - 12-75 nmol / l,
- up to 60 years - 13-70 nmol / l,
- after 60 - 13-60 nmol / l.
In laboratories, various methods for calculating total testosterone are used, so the values may vary. Decryption and conclusion can only be done by a specialist, whom you need to contact to get the result.
A decrease in hormone levels is called hypogonadism, and an increase is called hypergonadism. A low indicator of androgens may be due to insufficient production or a violation of the pituitary gland, which is responsible for the activation of its synthesis in the testes.
The causes of androgen deficiency can be:
- psychological factors - under stress there is an active production of adrenaline, which interferes with the synthesis of sex hormones,
- involutional changes - with age, an annual decrease in the concentration of hormones is noted, on average, the indicator drops by 1.5%,
- malnutrition - addiction to fatty, spicy foods with a high cholesterol content, as well as the use of alcohol and fizzy drinks leads to a disruption in the production of androgens,
- lack of exercise - lack of movement becomes a provocateur of sexual disorders,
- injuries and previous surgery, including removal of the testicles,
- long-term use of medications and complications of severe pathologies.
Hypogonadism develops as a result of disorders and diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis, alcoholism, atherosclerosis, overweight, asthma, ischemic myocardial disease, arterial hypertension.
Signs of deviation of testosterone in men from the norm will be:
- increase or decrease in sexual arousal,
- lack of erection, prostate disease,
- frequent redness of the skin around the face and chest,
- decrease or increase hair growth,
- frequent flushing of the face with a feeling of heat,
- breast enlargement,
- partial or complete organic erectile dysfunction,
- impaired reproductive function, infertility.
An excess of androgens will also be a dangerous violation. A strong excess of its level is accompanied by a risk of a heart attack, infertility, prostate cancer. Such a violation manifests itself by the appearance of blackheads on the body, mood swings, impaired liver function.
Analysis of the hormone level is carried out according to the following indications:
- impaired sexual desire, decreased potency, impotence,
- testicular tumor
- dysfunction of the pituitary gland,
- obesity, weight gain, breast augmentation, baldness,
- osteoporosis, chronic inflammation of the prostate gland.
Factors such as starvation, stress, medication, high body temperature, exacerbation of the disease can affect the reliability of the result.
Before donating blood for analysis, you need to honestly answer your doctor questions about nutrition and lifestyle. The specialist will give recommendations, thanks to which you can correctly prepare for the study and get accurate results.
Course of therapy
If a hormone level that is beyond the normal range is found in the analyzes, then the patient has problems with the reproductive system, heart, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and liver. In this case, an additional examination is carried out. Perhaps there will be a need not only to increase the level of male hormones, but also to treat the cause of the violation.
Therapy of the disease may include:
- in reducing the amount of SHBG,
- in taking certain vitamins
- in the treatment of pathology that caused a malfunction in hormone production,
- in lifestyle recommendations.
Reducing the ratio of SHBG in favor of free hormones can be medicated:
- AAS (androgens and anabolic steroids) increase the amount of free hormones. These include Drostanolone, Mesterolone (Proviron), Stanozolol (in the form of tablets). It is preliminary recommended to consult a doctor.
- Aromatase inhibitors reduce the production of estradiol, which regulates androgen production.
- Insulin neutralizes blood sugar, increases the level of male sex hormones.
- It is necessary to reduce the dose of triiodothyronine, cancel thyroxine.
Vitamin D, boron, magnesium reduce estradiol, releasing testosterone. Zinc increases the albumin content, which favorably affects the amount of conditionally free testosterone. To maintain male health, the general tone of the body that supports testosterone, it is important to follow the following recommendations:
- The diet should include vegetables, fruits and herbs, foods rich in fiber, phytonutrients.
- Reduce glucose intake. It stimulates the synthesis of cortisol, which is a stress hormone, blocks the secretion of androgen.
- Moderate consumption of polyunsaturated fats helps stabilize cholesterol. They have a beneficial effect on the absorption of nutrients derived from food. Foods rich in polyunsaturated fats include nuts, avocados, and vegetable oils (without heat treatment).
- Xenoestrogens (analogues of female sex hormones) are excluded. The bisphenol compound (weak estrogen) is often used in household chemicals. Such a compound has the ability to accumulate in the body, counteracting the production of testosterone.
- Regular physical activity, strength training can stimulate the release of androgen into the blood.
- Consuming whey protein and protein shakes after exercise enhances your workout.
- Zinc intake enhances sperm production, sperm motility, reducing the risk of prostate disease. Zinc is found in pumpkin seeds, green vegetables, lean meat.
- Research by Austrian scientists has proven that vitamin D can stimulate testosterone synthesis. In summer, its level is higher than in winter.
In men over 50 years of age, normal testosterone levels allow you to maintain normal parameters that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (supports muscle mass, prevents the accumulation of body fat, lowers cholesterol and sugar levels), providing stable blood pressure.
Testosterone levels in men. Table of norms at different ages
Testosterone is a hormone responsible for the formation of male physique, timbre, hair growth, sexual desire, sexual behavior, sperm formation. A normal amount of the main male hormone is also necessary for the functioning of the cardiovascular, nervous, circulatory and urinary systems, for improving memory, working capacity, and mental capabilities.
Testosterone is classified in three forms:
- Inactive. Testosterone circulates in the blood in combination with specific globulin (GPS) - 35-75%.Inactive form that does not interact with receptors,
- Active. Testosterone with non-specific protein albumin - 25-65%. Due to the weak connection, it is also called conditionally free. Active (bioavailable) form,
- Free. It circulates in the blood in a free form - 1-3%. Maximum bioavailability.
Total testosterone the sum of its three forms is considered.
Table of normal hormone values by age
|Age||Norm, nmol / l|
|0-1 years old||0, 42- 0,72|
|1-7 years old||0,1 – 1,12|
|7-13 years old||0,1 — 2,37|
|13-18 years old||0,98 – 38,5|
|18-50 years old||8,64 — 29|
|More than 50 years||6,68 – 25,7|
How to test for testosterone?
There are several ways to determine male testosterone levels:
- Blood analysis Is the most common testosterone test method. Results are obtained from analysis of plasma taken from a vein. In laboratories, two methods are used to calculate the concentration of testosterone. it nmol / l - nanomole per liter and pg / ml - picograms per milliliter.
- Saliva analysis - a new, simple and cheap method. It is based on the property of the penetration of free hormones from capillaries into salivary streams. The concentration of testosterone in saliva in men reflects the level of free, unbound protein, testosterone in the blood.
Analysis for testosterone is given from morning to 11 hours. Before the procedure itself, the following rules must be observed:
- Do not eat food 8-12 hours before taking the test.
- Do not load the body with excessive physical activity during the day.
- Refrain from smoking for 4 hours.
- Do not expose the body to stressful situations.
To obtain an objective result, you need to pass an analysis several times on different days. The average value will be closest to the real indicator.
Determination of testosterone levels by external signs
Signs of Low Testosterone
In young men, during the period of sexual development, the scrotum and penis do not develop, growth slows down, and the figure is formed according to the female type with wide hips and narrow shoulders. Muscle mass does not increase, the voice remains childish, there is no hair on the chest, in the pubic region and armpits.
The following symptoms indicate lower testosterone in adults:
- Change the voice to a higher tone.
- Decreased hair growth on the body and face or their absence.
- Fat formation on the abdomen and hips.
- Weight loss due to muscle loss, sagging skin, breast growth.
- Constant nervousness, fatigue, shortness of breath, insomnia, severe sweating.
- Decrease in erections at night, decrease in sexual desire.
- Decreased seminal fluid during ejaculation, impaired sperm production, infertility.
- Frequent redness of the face due to flushing, a feeling of heat.
- Memory impairment, mental decline
- It has been observed that men with low testosterone levels rarely grow bald.
- Signs of high testosterone.
- During puberty, an early change in the timbre of the voice, rapid puberty, growth of the penis against the background of lack of growth of the scrotum, early appearance of hair on the face and other parts of the body are manifested.
For adults, it is characteristic:
- bouts of aggression
- irritability and mood swings,
- increased hairiness
- purulent acne.
Such men are distinguished by physical endurance and strength, increased sexual desire. Outwardly, with developed muscles, strong body hair, but often with a bald head.
When do I need to test for testosterone?
The analysis can be prescribed by doctors (endocrinologist, andrologist, urologist, reproductologist) in such cases:
- Suspicion of infertility
- Decrease or absence of libido, impaired potency,
- In determining the causes of prostatitis,
- Rash of blackheads
- Decreased hair growth on the body or their complete absence,
- Depression, irritability, memory loss,
- Weight loss due to muscle tissue.
Testosterone is the main male sex hormone that biologically affects all the tissues of the male body, supporting its vital functions. For this reason, you need to know the level of its content in the body and maintain it within normal limits.