Prostate - what it is: the main functions of the prostate gland
Prostate (synonym: prostate) (lat. prostāta) - exocrine tubular-alveolar gland of the male mammalian organism. The prostate gland varies significantly in different species in anatomical, physiological and chemical respects.
The structure and anatomical location of the prostate
The gland has a rounded shape and small dimensions - about 3 cm high, 4 cm wide. It consists of two lobules, between which the isthmus connecting them is located, and the urethra penetrates right in the center.
In addition, the prostate is conditionally divided into such zones:
- base - its smooth, slightly concave surface is tightly in contact with the bladder,
- the top of the gland is a narrower zone of a slightly elongated shape. It is turned in the direction of the urogenital diaphragm,
- front region - convex, smooth, facing the pubic lobe,
- the back region is also smooth, slightly convex, facing the rectum,
- lateral sections - are rounded and small in size, protrude slightly into the lumen of the rectum.
The prostate is located in the middle of the pelvis - between the rectum and the pubic joint. Behind the gland, seminal vesicles form, and from below the seminal ducts with the lymphatic vessels along them pass through the organ. Around the prostate is a whole network of blood arteries and nerve fibers that are closely connected with the veins and nerve endings of the penis.
The tissues of the prostate are soft and elastic, due to the predominance of glandular and muscle cells in its structure. In this case, the consistency, shape and size of this organ change throughout life, depending on the age of the man. Changes can also be due to physiological characteristics, this is considered absolutely normal. Fears should be caused by those changes that occur too abruptly: a sudden enlargement of the prostate, compaction of its lobes, violation of the structure. Such signs indicate the development of pathological processes in the body, and therefore require careful analysis.
Purpose of the prostate in the male body: what is it responsible for?
The prostate is the exocrine gland of the male body.
Iron belongs to the reproductive system and is responsible for the production of a number of specific substances:
- the main one is the secret (prostatic juice), which provides the necessary viscosity of the ejaculate and, accordingly, normal sperm motility. When the sperm is too thick, fertilization is difficult, and a woman simply cannot get pregnant from a seemingly healthy man,
- other components support the normal composition of sperm. These include biologically active substances, immunoglobulins, enzymes, vitamins, trace elements, etc. The norms of these substances are individual, and the prostate regulates their content.
Thus, she is responsible for the reproductive abilities of men, for the ability to lead a regular and fulfilling sex life and have children. This is the main function of the gland, but there are others, no less important.
What are the functions of the prostate gland in men?
The prostate is the most important organ in the male body.
Iron is involved in many biological and physiological processes and performs various functions:
If these functions are violated, many systems fail.
The direct task of the prostate gland is to ensure sexual function, by producing a specific fluid - a secret. In normal condition, approximately 2 ml of this fluid (one third of the daily sperm volume) is produced by the prostate per day.The composition of the secret contains a number of organic substances and compounds necessary for sperm activation.
Thanks to secretory fluid, sperm acquires an optimal consistency for germ cells, in addition, sperm cells receive the necessary resources to move outside the male body, which protects them on the way to the egg. With violations of the secretory fluid, the man's ability to fertilize is significantly reduced.
Additionally, the secret promotes the exchange of sex hormones necessary for the full functioning of the male body. In addition, the study of the secret helps in the diagnosis of diseases: a fluid analysis makes it possible to identify pathogens in a timely manner and choose the most effective method of treatment. The process of secretory fluid production is regulated by testosterone, and if the amount of this hormone in the blood decreases, then the activity of the prostate also decreases. This is one of the common causes of erectile dysfunction.
With the help of the motor functions of the prostate, the processes of ejaculation and urination are controlled. These functions are carried out due to the reduction of smooth muscles in the gland: when a signal arrives through nerve fibers, the muscles begin to contract rhythmically and close the sphincter through which urine enters. The release of secretory fluid into the urinary canal gives the same effect, which is also provided by muscular contractions. Thanks to the overlapping of the sphincter, mixing of urine with ejaculate and its exit through sexual contact are excluded.
In addition to the main functions, the prostate plays the role of a protective barrier that prevents pathogens from spreading through the urethra through the urogenital system. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses are destroyed by substances contained in the secretory fluid. The antibacterial properties are also due to the presence of zinc in the prostate, and the lower its concentration, the weaker the protective reaction of the gland.
Tip. The accumulation of zinc contributes to the regular use of foods containing a sufficient amount of this element, for example, seafood, nuts, pumpkin seeds.
Common prostate diseases
The prostate is a very vulnerable organ: disruptions in its work can cause not only infections, but various injuries, overheating and overcooling of the body, malnutrition in conjunction with bad habits, as well as stress and nervous strain. Most often, men diagnosed with the following diseases of the prostate gland:
- prostatitis (chronic, calculous),
- prostate sclerosis,
- cancerous tumors.
In most cases, the development of diseases is provoked by stagnant processes in the gland, due to which the intake of useful substances decreases, lymph outflow decreases, and foci of inflammation occur. In turn, stagnation in the prostate leads to a lack of physical activity, alcohol abuse and smoking, hormonal disruptions due to endocrine diseases or taking certain medications. At risk are those who are obese or constantly expose their bodies to excessive physical exertion.
How to identify abnormalities in the prostate? Usually, at an early stage of pathology of the prostate gland, they appear more or less the same:
- urge to urinate
- reduced erection and sexual desire,
- there are pains in the perineum, which can be aggravated by emptying the bladder, bowel movement, or ejaculation.
In the future, if no measures are taken, the severity of symptoms intensifies, bloody discharge can be observed in urine and sperm, and the pain syndrome increases significantly. The success of treatment directly depends on how timely the call to a specialist was.Even worse, if the patient is engaged in self-diagnosis and is trying to fix the problem with the use of folk remedies. In this case, in addition to the underlying disease, doctors have to deal with the complications caused by such treatment.
Important! It is always worth remembering that the symptoms of many diseases are similar, and it is impossible to determine the cause of the disease on their own. Only a specialist can make the correct diagnosis, and even then after a detailed examination and passing the patient's tests.
How to treat prostate diseases
If you suspect problems with the prostate, you need to contact a urologist or andrologist. To make a diagnosis, the doctor performs a rectal examination and additionally prescribes an ultrasound scan, an MRI scan, and a blood, urine, and secretory fluid test. To detect genital infection, a smear is usually taken from the patient.
The results of the examination allow us to establish the cause of the disease and choose the right type of treatment.
Table. Methods for the treatment of prostate diseases
|Type of therapy||Description|
|It is prescribed for acute inflammatory processes, infectious lesions. If the disease is caused by an infection, the patient is shown taking antibiotics, for example, levofloxacin or sumamed. In case of prostate edema, medications from the group of alpha-adrenergic blockers are prescribed: “Terazosin”, “Alfuzosin”, etc. In addition, agents that increase immunity and vitamin complexes can be used.|
| ||This method of treatment is used for erectile dysfunction, chronic prostatitis and as a prophylaxis of stagnation in the gland. There are several massage techniques that vary in degree of effect on the prostate; under certain conditions, massage can be performed independently.|
| ||Special exercises are indicated for prostate adenoma and prostatitis. Proper muscle development can improve blood circulation and eliminate fluid congestion, which helps to relieve inflammation, swelling, pain and other unpleasant symptoms. Kegel exercises designed specifically for men are most effective.|
| ||Physiotherapeutic procedures can be prescribed as an adjunct treatment for inflammatory processes in the gland, bacterial infections, and BPH. Usually prescribed magnetotherapy, laser therapy, transrectal microwave hyperthermia.|
In addition to therapy, the rejection of bad habits and the normalization of diet are of great importance. An integrated approach accelerates recovery, the main thing is to strictly adhere to medical recommendations.
The development of prostatic secretion (secretory)
The prostate is the male reproductive gland that performs secretory exocrine function. It is a hormonal glandular organ of internal secretion that responds to androgens. In adults, its tissues are capable of endocrine response. That is, the epithelium of the gland produces a special secret.
This process is regulated by the endocrine system, which responds to stimulation (excitation) by the release of specific complex substances that directly and actively affect the fertilization of the egg.
The most studied components of the secret are:
The secretory functional ability of the gland is regulated by testosterone. If the level of the hormone in the blood falls, then the prostate itself begins to intensively produce it.
The secret not only dilutes sperm and reduces its viscosity, but also is responsible for the activity and viability of sperm, protecting them from harmful effects and providing them with nutrition - energy resources.
This creates the necessary conditions for the fertilization of the egg and subsequent normal embryogenesis in the body of a woman. On average, in a healthy man, the secret is at least 1/3 of the ejaculate.
Protective properties (barrier)
This is ensured by the secretion of the zinc peptide complex, as well as other biologically active substances (lysozyme, spermine, spermidine, putrescine).
Thanks to this function, the prostate is part of the male immune system, which produces secretory immunoglobulins.
The antibacterial activity of the prostate is due to the presence of free zinc ions in it.
What is the prostate gland?
The prostate gland is an important organ of the genitourinary system that looks like two lobes of a trapezoidal shape resembling chestnut. These lobes are interconnected due to the isthmus between them. The gland itself is located directly under the bladder, and with its concave wider base touches it. Further, in the area of the urethra, the prostate narrows and, as it were, surrounds the isthmus.
In fact, the prostate gland and the prostate are one and the same, both names are suitable for this important organ. Both lobes of the prostate include glandular masses and muscle tissue in their structure, then the mouth of the excretory ducts extends from the prostate to the walls of the urethra. In medicine, the prostate is considered the gland of both external and internal secretion due to its functional load.
The prostate gland is considered one of the most important organs of the genitourinary system due to the large functional load of the organ. It performs several functions at once, due to which it is interconnected with many other organs and processes in this area of the body.
Doctors call several functions of the prostate, namely:
- Secretory - iron produces a secret in the form of a mucous fraction, due to which the level of testosterone in the body is regulated, and also this secret is an important component of male sperm. Without this secret, sperm activity is not possible. And if the functionality of the prostate is impaired, accordingly, male fertility decreases, when the sperm become less mobile and capable of fertilization.
- Motor - both lobes of the prostate are separated by the fibrinous muscle membrane, which also helps the prostate contract, resulting in the formation of a sphincter or urine-holding ring. In a simple language, a man with the help of the prostate can hold the process of urination.
- Barrier - the work of the gland also consists in the development and synthesis of substances, thanks to which infections that penetrate through the urinary canal are neutralized in the body.
Thus, we can say that the prostate is a multifunctional gland of the genitourinary system, which determines the hormonal background, sexual activity, urination, fertility and the man’s ability to have children.
Regulation of the psychoemotional state of a man
With prostate dysfunction, not only sexual function suffers. General somatic and, as a result, psychoemotional changes occur.
This is associated with a mental disorder due to problems in the intimate sphere, as well as with a general malfunction in the hormonal background of a person.
It should be noted that such an effect on the body is currently not fully understood. In some cases, men with impaired prostate function really need the advice and help of a psychologist.
The role of the prostate in reproductive function
The prostate gland plays an important role in the reproductive function of men. It is directly related to the work of all the endocrine glands and affects the production of sex hormones by the pituitary gland.
The prostate itself secretes testosterone and other biologically active substances that affect spermogenesis and the entire reproductive system.
Due to such a complex effect and relationship with other organs and systems, this gland is one of the most important components of the body and plays a dominant role in the reproductive ability of men.
- secretion production, which is part of sperm,
- closing the exit from the bladder at the time of erection.
The prostate is located in the central part of the pelvis, covering in a circle the neck of the bladder, as well as the urethra in the proximal part of the latter. The apical part of the prostate gland is in contact with the diaphragm of the pelvis, above it is the external urethral sphincter, which performs the main closure function. Another organ with which the prostate gland borders is the rectum, whose anterior wall, as well as the fascia of Denonvillier, make it possible to clearly palpate the prostate from behind. The prostate gland is closely associated with such anatomical elements as the seminal vesicles and vas deferens, perforating its body in a diagonal direction, opening in the upper part of the seminal tubercle, which is located at a distance of several mm from the external urethral sphincter.
The prostate received the nickname "second heart." The correctness of her work determines both sexual function, and the correct functioning of the urinary system, and the mental state of a man. It is the main auxiliary genital gland, which performs the function of secretion.
Disturbances in work
The importance of the functions for which the prostate is responsible is so great that a man needs to carefully monitor her condition. The gland is very vulnerable to various types of pathological processes, and it is quite difficult to restore its work. But one must at least know what to fear.
Arising prostate dysfunctions are:
The reasons leading to such pathological changes are very diverse and in each case are individual.
Factors that disrupt the functioning of the prostate can be both external (poor ecology, ionizing radiation, stress, a passive lifestyle, exposure to infectious agents), and internal (genetic predisposition, concomitant chronic and acute diseases, bad habits).
The size of a healthy prostate can be normal up to 25 cubic meters. cm, which corresponds to a volume of 25 ml. The average density of this organ is 1.05 g per cubic meter. see. Length - from 32 to 45 mm, width - from 35 to 50 mm, thickness - from 17 to 25 mm.
At different ages, the density and shape of this organ is somewhat different. Before the puberty, the prostate is small in size, it is mainly muscle tissue. In the puberty, a glandular component appears. The prostate of an adult male includes glandular, smooth muscle, as well as connective tissue.
The shape of this organ is similar to the shape of a chestnut, which divides the groove in the central part. The upper narrowed part of the gland is directed towards the diaphragm, and the base of this organ has a large width, the bladder is in contact with it.
The front of the prostate is facing the pubis, the back is toward the intestine. The shape of the latter is concave, the surface is smooth. On the sides are rounded zones.
The prostate is located in the pelvis, it is surrounded by the rectum, pubis, bladder. The prostate gland partially covers the urethra and ejaculation.
Smooth muscle tissue accounts for 25-50% of the prostate gland. Its glandular component includes ducts with a pair of joints that open holes (the number of which can be 15-25) on the sides near the seed tubercle, the location of which is the posterior wall of the urethra.
The main diseases of the prostate
The prostate gland is not only an extremely important organ for any man, but also a fragile organ in front of various inflammatory processes, diseases and pathologies. Doctors call some of the most common diseases of the prostate - adenoma and prostatitis, abscess and stones in the gland, tuberculosis or oncology. By the age of 50, half of the male population is faced with one or even several ailments from this list.
How to determine that the gland is not working properly?
If you have problems with the prostate gland, you need to pay attention to the following symptoms:
If such symptoms appear, it is necessary, without delay, to turn to a urologist or andrologist. The doctor will tell you which tests to take, advise you to have a massage, prescribe medications and physiotherapeutic procedures. If improvement does not occur, you may have to solve the problem more radically.
Of all diseases, prostate adenoma is a natural pathology that occurs due to aging in older men. If we consider men aged 75 years and older, 90% of them suffer from prostate adenoma. In simple terms, an adenoma is a cyst or pathological proliferation of glandular tissue.
The following factors can provoke the growth of the gland:
- genetics - the pathology is transmitted by heredity, in addition, in these men it appears at the same age, has a similar picture of symptoms and course,
- endocrine disorders - due to aging, the level of development of sex hormones in the body decreases, accordingly, this causes the growth of gland tissues,
- excess weight - due to excess adipose tissue, blood flow in the pelvic region is disturbed, and testosterone levels are lowered, which affects the prostate,
- poor nutrition - unnecessarily unhealthy food and a lack of useful components leads to an increased risk of inflammatory processes, including in the prostate,
- Lifestyle - lack of mobility of a man can lead to prostate dysfunctions,
- bad habits - alcohol-containing drinks, narcotic substances, smoking violate many processes in the body, being predisposing factors for the development of prostate adenoma.
Symptoms and Treatment
The complexity of the disease lies in the fact that prostate adenoma is quite difficult to diagnose in a timely manner, since it is asymptomatic for a long time. The first thing the clinical picture begins with, the proliferation of glandular nodules leads to pressure on the urinary canal, which affects the process of urination. Further, symptoms are considered according to 3 stages of adenoma development:
- Compensated - there is frequent urination mainly at night, but difficult and weak.
- Subcompensated - at this stage, the man will feel an incomplete emptying of the bladder, there is still an increased urge to defecate, and urine comes out literally drop by drop. Thirst and dry mouth can also be observed, which indicates kidney problems.
- Decompensated - at this stage, the man suffers from the impossibility of emptying the bladder, which causes the bladder to stretch and lose its sensitivity. A man can not control the excretion of urine, the kidneys are completely disrupted.
Treatment involves several stages:
- Medication - alpha-adrenoreceptor blockers are used to reduce the tone of the muscles of the prostate and reduce its size. Thanks to such drugs, the pressure on the bladder also decreases, which helps a man to empty more easily. In addition, alpha reductase inhibitors can be prescribed that protect testosterone from conversion to dihydrotestosterone, anti-inflammatory and antiexudative drugs.
- Physiotherapy - special exercises are used to normalize blood flow in the pelvic area and peritoneum. A technique for warming the cyst with the help of electric shock in combination with a diet, intake of vitamins and substances for the normal functioning of the urinary system is possible.
- Surgery - in an extreme case, with an exacerbation of the pathology and development to stages 2–3, when conservative treatment has been unsuccessful, surgery may be prescribed, for example, a transurethral surgery or a simpleectomy.
Another common disease associated directly with the prostate gland is prostatitis. This is an inflammatory process that can be triggered by the penetration of infection or capillary stasis. Infection occurs either through the urethral opening, or through the anus of a man. The disease is accompanied by extremely unpleasant symptoms.
Why do urologist need preventive examinations?
Unfortunately, men tend not to attach much importance to the initial symptoms that occur in the early stages of prostatitis.
This leads to a neglected form of the disease and serious complications. Many people avoid examination by a urologist, based on false moral principles and forgetting about their own health.
Such patients go to the doctor when the disease is neglected, and serious efforts are needed to heal.
Causes of Prostatitis
To prevent prostatitis or to choose the rules of treatment, a man needs to know the causes of its occurrence. There may actually be several reasons, namely:
- hormonal disorders associated with those hormones that are responsible for erection and the process of ejaculation,
- circulatory problems on the background of the inflammatory process, edema and constriction of blood vessels,
- injuries of the bladder or perineum, which provoke stagnation of blood in the vessels,
- the abuse of alcoholic beverages, which leads to a decrease in the protective functions of the body and the development of inflammatory processes,
- any diseases of the urinary system, accompanied by a narrowing of the urethral opening and problems with urination,
- irregular sex life, which leads to stagnation of blood in the prostate gland,
- a sedentary lifestyle of a man, which also causes stagnant processes in the pelvic area.
Specialists consider ejaculation, that is, regular and full sexual life, as the ejaculation process acts as the best natural prostate massage, the best prophylactic for prostatitis.
About the functions of the prostate gland in men in the video:
The prostate gland is one of the most important male organs, responsible for many functions, including affecting sexual and reproductive activity. The prostate should be treated carefully and carefully, remembering that only regular examinations by a urologist will help to avoid serious problems and maintain good health.
What is carcinoma?
A carcinoma is a malignant tumor in the prostate gland that can be triggered by various factors or several causes at once. Doctors call the most common natural causes of prostate cancer, namely:
- advanced age, which is accompanied by a lack of produced sex hormones and changes in the tissues of the gland,
- genetics and hereditary predisposition to this type of oncology,
- a man’s lifestyle, for example, prolonged abuse of alcohol, drugs and tobacco, which leads to a mutagenic effect on the body,
- poor and unhealthy diets, especially if a man abuses red meat and fatty foods.
Cancer symptoms begin with impaired urine output with interruption processes and frequent urges, pain and burning. Then there is pain in the anus during palpation, in extreme cases, a man can see blood in semen, and complete impotence can be observed. The third and fourth stage of carcinoma is accompanied by bone pain in the pelvic region, anemia and swelling of the limbs, body, as well as paralysis.
Carcinoma is rarely detected at the initial stage, since oncology develops over the years without pronounced symptoms. Treatment is based on several methods:
- Targeted treatment or chemotherapy to inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
- Targeted treatment with drugs to attack cancer cells with monoclonal antibodies.
- Hormone therapy to slow the growth of cancer cells.
- Radiation therapy for x-ray irradiation of cancer cells or as an alternative to brachytherapy and ultrasound therapy.
- Brachytherapy for exposure to cancer cells with the radioactive isotope of iodine.
- Ultrasound therapy for the impact of ultrasound on the tumor.
If we consider radical methods of treating carcinoma, this is an operative intervention, a simpleectomy, when the prostate is completely excised or a transurethral resection, when the tumor is partially removed using a resiscope.
What is the prostate gland in men responsible for - the main functions of the organ
Sooner or later, a man wonders what the prostate is, why it is needed, what is its effect on health. Unfortunately, interest in this topic appears when the gland is disrupted.
This immediately affects the quality of life, potency decreases, reproductive abilities weaken, debilitating pains and other problems begin.
After all, the functions of the prostate gland are diverse, it has a huge impact on men's health and is responsible for vital processes.
Preventive measures can reduce the risks of developing all of the above diseases of the prostate gland. This is a competent and responsible approach of a man to his sexual health and quality of life. The first thing that needs to be changed for the better is the diet, getting rid of harmful addictions and excess weight. The second thing that is necessary for the normal functioning of the prostate is a mobile and active lifestyle.
Doctors recommend that all men lead a regular and fulfilling sex life, avoid frequent changes in sexual partners and casual relationships. If a man is at risk, it is important to check with a urologist every six months, as well as conduct a preventive prostate massage. And in order to reduce the risks of developing diseases, you need to know the causes and factors that provoke them, and then eliminate them completely from your life.
The prostate gland is an important organ of the genitourinary system, responsible for several processes at once. Any deviations from the norm, pathology and disorders will cause concomitant diseases, and will also be accompanied by a very unpleasant clinical picture. Therefore, it is important for men to monitor their health, promptly turning to medical specialists for help.
The main functions of the prostate gland
The prostate gland is one of the most important organs of the reproductive system. Not only the man’s sexual capabilities depend on his normal work, but also his normal life. Recently, inflammation of the prostate is being diagnosed more and more often. Earlier, men with prostate worried men after 50-60 years, but today the age level has significantly decreased.
It is very important to timely identify inflammation of the prostate gland and undergo effective treatment. Otherwise, erectile dysfunction, constant stress and poor health are guaranteed to the man. To understand how important this organ is, you need to know the basic functions of the prostate.
The prostate in a man is placed directly under the bladder, grasping the upper third of the ureter. It is a hormone-dependent organ and varies significantly with age.
So, in newborns, the prostate is in its infancy, and its weight does not exceed several g.
But during puberty, it rapidly begins to increase in size, and by the age of 22-25 it reaches its normal size.
In adulthood, it goes through the second stage of change, still slightly increasing in size. If the gland grows significantly at this time, then this may be a consequence of the disease - benign hyperplasia, which is called prostate adenoma.
Such a pathology can lead to a decrease in the size of the lumen of the urethra and to problems with urination. Therefore, you need to know what sizes of the prostate gland are normal, and periodically monitor their possible changes.
It is believed that for a middle-aged man, the size of the prostate gland should be 30 mm in length, 30 mm in width and 20 mm in thickness. In this case, a small deviation from these values is considered the norm:
- length - 25-45 mm,
- width - 22-40 mm,
- thickness - 15-23 mm.
The prostate gland belongs to unpaired organs, it has a dense and elastic consistency, contains connective tissue, glandular and muscle cells. Inside the body there are vas deferens.
The prostate consists of several parts. The lower part faces the urogenital diaphragm (perineal muscles that limit the exit from the pelvis).
The upper part (base) has a smooth, slightly concave surface that adjoins the bladder.
There is also the concept of the anterior and posterior surfaces: the first is directed to the pubic fusion, and the posterior to the intestine. The lateral parts of the organ are called lower lateral surfaces.
The prostate gland consists of 2 closely adjacent lobes, called the right and left sides of the body. Between themselves, the lobes are connected using the isthmus. This part of the organ plays a very important role in the mechanism of development of prostate diseases.
With age, the isthmus gradually thickens and increases in size, because of which, over time, it can be compared with the proportion of the prostate. This leads to the fact that the urethra, which passes in the thickness of the gland, will be more and more compressed.
As a result, outflow of urine may be impaired.
The physiological role of the prostate is very diverse, it concerns both the implementation of various reproductive functions and the retention of urine, that is, the implementation of normal urination.
There are various classifications of prostate function. They can be divided depending on the location. In this case, internal and external functions are distinguished.
An external function includes the production by the cells of an organ of the prostatic juice - a slightly alkaline fluid, which makes up about 30% of sperm.
The internal function includes the production of hormones that affect the entire body.
The following classification of the functions of the prostate gland includes the main types of tissue: muscle, which is responsible for the movement of secretion through the channels, and glandular, which plays the main role in the secretion.
The latest and most common classification is based on the principle of the effect of iron. According to him, the main functions of the prostate gland are divided into:
The motor function of the prostate is carried out in 2 ways: by ejecting secretions during ejaculation and through the smooth muscle fibers that control urination.
The secretory function is carried out by the glandular part. She is responsible for:
- the production of prostatic juice,
- the production of biologically active substances (prostaglandins), which are directly involved in the blood supply to the pelvic organs and are responsible for a normal erection in a man,
- synthesis of male sex hormones (testosterone), enzymes, vitamins, citric acid, immunoglobulins and prostate-specific antigen.
The secret produced by her provides sperm liquefaction and normal sperm activity.
An endocrine function is the production of certain compounds that are not carried with the blood stream throughout the body, but show their activity directly in the prostate, after which they are absorbed back. These elements include prostaglandins and other proteins that regulate the work of this body.
The essence of the barrier function is as follows: the prostate is a kind of checkpoint that separates the process of urination from the process of ejaculation.
In this case, the muscle part of the gland prevents the flow of seminal fluid into the bladder, being its involuntary sphincter.
It is also worth noting that the prostate is responsible for the quality of urination, it retains urine and ensures its normal outflow at the right time.
The prostate also protects the male genital tract from a variety of infections. It does not allow infections from the urinary canal to enter the upper urinary tract, protecting them from various infectious diseases.
What are the functions of the prostate in the body of men. Features and Importance
The prostate gland is one of the most important organs of the male body. Diseases of the prostate can lead to infertility, even death.
The media often tell us about possible violations in the functionality of the prostate, but most of the strong half of humanity still can not fully understand what is important organ. what function does the prostate gland perform.
Understanding the principles, features of the work of this body makes it possible to competently maintain their own health, improve the quality of life, remain energetic until old age, able to lead an active sex life.
Secretory function of the prostate in men
The prostate produces a so-called secret, consisting of many active enzymes:
- biogenic amines
- citric acid citrate.
The secretion produced by the prostate also serves as a breeding ground for spermatozoa after they leave the male body during the fertilization process.
A hormone is responsible for stimulating the production of prostatic juice. testosteroneproduced by the testes and adrenal glands. Despite the fact that this secret is produced regularly, it is released only during ejaculation.
Barrier function: what is it
The secret of the prostate contains many important enzymes and polyans that prevent the penetration of infectious diseases of the upper parts of the urinary tract. The main "defenders" are immunoglobulins A, C, lysozyme. This may include the production of chemicals that are in the blood, such as prostaglandins.
That is, the prostate gland is responsible for the state of potency, performs a number of other functions, due to which the exchange of male sex hormones is performed, and this directly affects the activity of the reproductive system of the body.
How is it all interconnected
The prostate takes part in many processes occurring in the body, and it is impossible to say which function of the prostate gland is more important. The work of the male reproductive system and vice versa depends on all its activities.
Testosterone synthesized in the testes is responsible for stimulating the production of prostate secretion. If their work is disrupted, hormonal deficiency occurs in the body, as a result of which the prostate gland itself is depressed.
With violations of the prostate, the composition of the prostatic juice changes, the quantity and quality of its production decrease, which entails the inhibition of the functions of the reproductive system. This primarily affects the quality of the ejaculate. Sperm become inactive, and their life span is reduced several times.
One of the important tasks of the prostate is the synthesis of beneficial substances involved in protein, carbohydrate metabolism, maintaining normal smooth muscle function, as well as erectile function. Violation of these mechanisms in the work leads to a lack of erection, the inability to have sexual intercourse.
Abnormal work of the prostate can be accompanied by mental disorders, nervous breakdowns. This is due to the fact that the balance of enzymes entering the circulatory system changes. The activity of a man in an intimate plan may also decrease in the implementation of daily activities.
Although according to the scientific classification, all the functions of the prostate are divided into three categories, in fact they are much larger, even a slight deviation from the normal functioning of the organ can lead to rather complicated consequences. Visit your doctor regularly to prevent prostate dysfunction. Although the examination procedures, some tests are rather unpleasant, they are much safer and more painless pathologies.
The prostate gland is one of the most important organs of the male body, it is thanks to the prostate that men can fulfill their main purpose - procreation. Diseases of the prostate are problematically treated, accompanied by severe pain.
The prostate needs to be constantly maintained in working condition, and if there are practically no violations in the young body, closer to middle age (period 35-45 years), every second man experiences certain problems. The functionality of the gland is strongly influenced by the environment and bad habits, and regular stress, overvoltage and many other factors exacerbate their effect.
The structure, properties and functions of the prostate gland
About how important the prostate plays in men, people think already after the gland is affected by any ailment. Many do not even imagine why it is needed and what actions can lead to a decrease in its functionality.
Unlike other endocrine glands, the activity of this formation can be controlled to a certain extent. This is much simpler than treating prostatitis and prostatic hyperplasia - diseases that are increasingly being detected in modern men.
It will not be superfluous to recognize the symptoms of prostatitis in men in order to respond to changes in time, and not to aggravate the situation.
Male prostate - what is it from the point of view of anatomy? The formation is an unpaired organ of small size. Its structure is formed by glandular tissue and muscle fibers. In size and shape, the conglomerate resembles a large chestnut, turned upside down with a broad base, and a pointed end down. The gland is located under the bladder and enters the base of the pelvis.
The functions of the prostate are due to the presence of glandular cells in it. When combined, they form special heterogeneous capsules. Those, in turn, form shares - there are at least 30 pieces. Each of the functional units is capable of producing a prostatic secret. You also need to know that the prostate consists of three main parts: left, right and front - in the form of an isthmus between them.
An important role is played not only by the structure of the prostate, but also by its localization. The front part of it approaches the pubic bone, and the back - to the lower rectum. The location and structure of the prostate gland significantly facilitate the process of identifying pathologies in it.
In the diagnosis of prostatitis, a photo of the gland, made by transrectal ultrasound, allows you to extremely accurately determine the degree of organ damage.
And through his palpation examination through the anus, which makes the urologist, you can identify obvious structural changes.
Some people have the question of how to properly call education - the prostate gland or the prostate. This is the same thing, so there will be no error in both cases.
You can still find such definitions as “prostate” and even “second heart of a man”. The latter option indicates the importance of the prostate gland.
What is it, if not the heart, if the general condition of a person, the functions of his body and the psychoemotional state depend on the health of the organ.
The main and auxiliary functions of the prostate
Some people do not understand why a prostate is needed, being confident that it is just some kind of vestigial structure in men. Acute or chronic prostatitis symptoms and treatment photos of which can be found on information resources are not the only thing the organ is capable of. This conglomerate has a number of useful properties and is responsible for several important areas at once.
Basic functions of the prostate gland:
- The development of prostatic secret. The main purpose of the prostate is active participation in hormonal metabolism. It is in response to the fact that the secretory lobes of the organ work, the man displays secondary sexual characteristics, the level of sexual activity is controlled. In case of tissue damage, she needs urgent treatment, otherwise the production of substances necessary for the normal fertilization of the egg will stop. If for some reason the production of testosterone in the body decreases, then it is the male prostate that is trying to normalize the process.
- Urine outflow control. The so-called motor function of the prostate is provided by the presence of muscle fibers in it. In one case, they contribute to the release of gland juice into the urethra during ejaculation. In another, the muscles form the sphincter, which is able to hold urine from involuntary exit into the urethra. With damage to the prostate gland, or prostate, for example, by an inflammatory process, there is an increase in the organ and squeezing of the urethra. Only timely and high-quality treatment of prostatitis and other ailments can restore the normal functioning of the genitourinary system.
- Protective properties. What is the prostate for? It protects the organs of the excretory system from infection, which is able to penetrate the urethra from the external environment and climb the mucous membrane. The presence of this function is ensured by the presence in the secret of the formation of special complexes that contribute to the strengthening of cellular immunity.
Even minor malfunctions in an element can cause serious problems. Experts remind that it is wrong to treat only the physiological side of the disease. During the profile therapy, you should also consult a psychologist who will help to cope with the negative attitude of the patient.
The appointment of the prostate gland is manifested in the regulation of the psycho-emotional state of men
What is the prostate gland? It is a glandular-muscular organ that actively produces a special biologically active substance. This juice, or secret, is part of the ejaculate.
It is on him that the main function of maintaining the activity and vital activity of spermatozoa lies. The composition of the slightly alkaline product is represented by proteins, minerals, organic acids, enzymes and fats.
Changing the set of components of the prostate secretion in men reduces the likelihood of fertilization of the egg.
It’s not enough to understand why the prostate gland is needed, we also need to study the features of the juice that is produced in it. It is important to remember that in the shares of a healthy prostate in men, its synthesis does not stop.
In this case, the isolation of the product is possible only in the process of ejecting the seed. Stagnation of a substance leads to an increase in its viscosity, and the launch of pathological reactions - often they become the cause of tissue inflammation.
It turns out that the best treatment for prostatitis and its prevention is regular sex life with mandatory ejaculation.
The relationship of the male organ with other body systems
The answer to the question of why the prostate gland is needed can also be seen in evaluating its connection with some parts of the man’s body. In particular, with endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland produces hormones that stimulate the performance of education. It, in response, sends signals to the brain if something is wrong with it, forcing it to work more actively.
In this case, the impact is on all systems and organs of the male body in order to maintain its fertility and sexual activity.
The active parts of the prostate are directly related to the activity of the testicles. If prostate tissue is affected, and treatment is not performed or does not produce the desired result, the quantity and quality of sperm are reduced.
In the case of castration, that is, the termination of the functioning of the testicles, the performance of the prostate gland, or prostate, also falls. The volume of its secret is reduced, less biological components are formed in it.
It is important to know the signs of prostatitis in men and its treatment, because in case of damage to the organ by the inflammatory process, its volume can seriously increase.
This will lead to constriction of the urethra and a malfunction in the processes of removing urine from the bladder.
The phenomenon not only affects the quality of everyday life of a man and his sexual activity, but can also lead to the development of more serious pathological conditions.
Calculous form of pathology
Particularly noteworthy is calculous prostatitis, photo treatment and prevention of which are distinguished by their specificity. This pathology is not so common and in most cases is the result of a disease ignored or not cured until the end of the disease at a young age. Sometimes it occurs against a background of chronic prostatitis, the treatment of which is not according to the rules.
Here is the basic information for this type of disease:
|Cause||Blood stasis in the pelvic area, which leads to increased secretion density. As a result, stones are formed that block the ducts of the prostate gland.|
|Provocateurs||Men with heart and vascular diseases, varicose veins, hemorrhoids need to be wary of this form of the disease. A special risk group is people with irregular sex life.|
|Signs||Soreness in the pelvic area, which gives to the sacrum and lower back. It is enhanced in the process of sex, walking, prolonged sitting. Potency decreases, problems with urination appear.|
|Features of the course||Manifestations of the disease can weaken without any external influence under the influence of internal factors. Even if the disease is cured, the likelihood of its re-development is high. Therefore, control is needed throughout life.|
|Therapy Features||In this case, the treatment of prostatitis prohibits the use of prostate massage. Mandatory medication that destroys stones. Sometimes it is necessary to remove the formations surgically.|
With this prostate, symptoms and photos of the organ as a result of ultrasound examination give a chance to quickly make the correct diagnosis.
In the pictures, calculous elements are clearly visible, which allows you to choose the best option for influencing the problem.
The presence of stones in the prostate can at any time lead to the development of an emergency, therefore, it is necessary to treat the disease even if it does not bother.
Anatomy and location
The prostate gland is inside the body, so it is impossible to see it through the eyes. This requires special medical equipment. The organ is divided into two parts, interconnected, which are tightly pressed against the urinary system, and the rectum is located behind. The male prostate does not always function correctly.
Any specialist knows where the prostate is located in men. It has a direct effect on the function of the genitourinary system.
This body consists of the following parts:
- glandular tissue - is a separate part that performs the function of a secret,
- muscle tissue - located between the parts of the glandular. In its structure, this part of the body is no different from other soft tissues.
Attention! There are situations when the normal size of the prostate in men is exceeded. This indicates, at a minimum, the presence of an inflammatory process.
If the prostate is inflamed, how dangerous is this condition? The organ has a very small size, but in medicine there are three main parameters:
- width - 27-43 mm,
- length - 40 mm
- diameter - 20 mm.
The volume of the prostate sometimes goes beyond normal limits. In this case, they say that the pathological process has begun. If the specified excess is small, you can not worry.
However, not in all patients, natural indicators may correspond to this norm - a slight deviation is allowed, since the body of each person is individual. Therefore, an increase in indicators can be triggered not only by infectious diseases.
The phi prostate health index is a multifactorial indicator used to calculate the potential formation of prostate cancer.
What is the prostate? It directly affects the performance of the genitals.
In order to understand what a prostate is, you need to know what functions it performs:
- barrier - necessary for the proper supply of urinary fluid to the body. There is a certain valve in the prostate that prevents secret juice from entering the urinary system. It also prevents infectious diseases from entering the kidney system,
- incretory - needed for the proper functioning of the body. It contains certain substances that are responsible for pain. Therefore, when diagnosing, it is possible to identify a violation in the prostate due to this function. Since in the analysis, if this indicator is significantly lower than normal, this indicates the presence of disorders in the body,
- secretory - This function is very important, as it is responsible for potency, erection and sexual relations. It is she who warms up the seminal fluid and allows her to go outside,
- motor - is responsible for the correct withdrawal of urinary fluid from the body. It also affects the production of secret juice.
The prostate gland and each of its functions are important for the full functioning of the penis.
Other common prostate diseases
Having learned what prostatitis is in men, what are the symptoms and photos of organ damage, do not calm down. Diseases of the gland are not always accompanied by inflammation, because of which their course may initially go unnoticed.
Tumor pathologies are even more dangerous. Representatives of the stronger sex after 40 years are highly recommended to visit a urologist annually, examination of which will reveal these ailments in the early stages.
The doctor begins any examination with a questioning of the patient: what pains he feels, under what circumstances an ailment with a prostate was discovered. Next, the doctor conducts an initial examination of the patient. In this case, a palpation method is used, which allows you to detect a number of pathologies in the patient. The prostate gland is checked by a specialist for tissue elasticity and size. At the initial examination, the degree of pain of the patient is revealed.
If there is a suspicion of the possibility of tumors in the prostate, MRI is prescribed. This study allows you to fully and in detail diagnose the problem. Also, tomography can distinguish malignant from benign tumors.MRI can detect neoplasms in the early stages of cancer, which allows the doctor to make an accurate diagnosis and begin competent and comprehensive treatment.
The prostate gland and its possible diseases:
- cyst formation
- malignant and benign tumors.
Organ changes in adenoma
At the onset of adenoma, characteristic symptoms do not occur in the body. Only when examined on an ultrasound machine, you can see that the prostate has slightly increased in size.
The anatomy of the location of the gland gives reason to identify the exact signs of the disease. As the adenoma affects the gland, it begins to increase significantly. Therefore, the patient has severe pain during sexual contact, urination also occurs constantly.
How can hemorrhoids and prostate be related? Prostate disease and inflammation of the rectum can accompany each other.
Alcohol and the prostate can also be interconnected. Destructive changes in this organ can be triggered by alcohol.
At the last stage of the disease, adenoma provokes the formation of bleeding during urination. Symptoms such as constipation, swelling, and enlarged lymph nodes also appear. A mild adenoma can be treated with a medication, but a severe form can only be cured by surgery.
Prostate change with prostatitis
Anatomy data makes it clear where it is located, what it looks like and what normal dimensions the prostate has. Normal volume may vary, depending on age. The human anatomy is such that the gland is located under the bladder. In the case when there is a pathological arrangement, you have to understand the reasons why this could happen.
Prostatitis is one of the most common diseases. It occurs in two forms:
Photos of the pathological process in an active state allow us to judge the signs that can serve as a cause for concern. The acute form is found at a young age, due to infections in the body. After 50 years, men have a chronic form. Since at this age, internal tissues weaken, and age-related changes occur in the body.
The main symptoms:
- when urine is released, burning occurs,
- problems occur during sexual intercourse,
Due to this ailment, the prostate enlarges in size, as purulent formations accumulate in the tissues, and stones can also appear. With proper treatment, this ailment can be completely cured.
Adenoma, hyperplasia, a benign tumor are all the names of one process. It is characterized by proliferation of glandular tissue and an increase in prostate volumes.
Despite the benign nature, the formation causes a decrease in the functionality of the organ and can lead to blockage of the urethra. In some cases, the organ even has to be completely removed.
Given how much prostate is needed in men, this cannot be allowed at any age.
As a rule, prostate cancer occurs in old age and occurs in many men. The main causes of tumor development are:
- age factor
- the last stage of adenoma,
- bad habits,
- passive lifestyle,
- irregular sexual relations
- work in hazardous production.
With the formation of cancer of the prostate gland for a long time remains in its normal size. For this reason, the patient goes to the doctor very late.
Symptoms of this disease:
- strong pain
- when urinating, blood discharge appears,
- genital dysfunction,
- at the last stage, intoxication of the body may occur.
To date, prostate cancer is treated at any stage, and in this case it is impossible to procrastinate. Also, doctors do not recommend self-medication, since this disease cannot be cured at home.
As a rule, two standard methods are used for healing. Radiation therapy is used at all stages, regardless of age. However, this therapy has a significant drawback - these are frequent cases of relapse. Surgical intervention is also used - this method of treatment is resorted to only in the most severe cases.
The development of adenoma and prostate cancer can have similar symptoms - the treatment will be fundamentally different. A malignant formation, unlike a benign one, can go beyond the limits of an organ, causing irreparable damage to the entire body. It should be treated with aggressive chemicals, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Rules for maintaining prostate health
Even the treatment of prostatitis can last for many months, not to mention the development of a tumor in the body of the gland. The exclusion of harmful factors from a man’s life can significantly reduce potential risks and preserve his sexual and reproductive functions for many years.
Here are the main points that you need to pay attention to:
- Sexual life should be of high quality and regular. Do not practice promiscuous sexual intercourse and interrupted sexual intercourse.
- We must not forget about the rules of personal hygiene. Neglect of them can lead to a decrease in local immunity and the penetration of pathogenic bacteria into the urethra.
- An active lifestyle and exercise will ensure normal blood circulation in the pelvis. And this is better prevention of congestion, leading to the development of prostatitis, including the calculous form.
- Do not allow excess weight gain. The fat layer will cause a violation of metabolic reactions in the prostate and will lead to disruption of its work.
- A decrease in general immunity, hormonal disruptions, and even stress often cause a decrease in the functionality of the prostate gland. It is necessary to pay attention to all aspects of everyday life in order to prevent these negative consequences.
- Proper nutrition and rejection of bad habits is another important point in maintaining the health of the male gland. They are the key to maintaining the texture of the body within normal limits for many years.
Any changes in the condition and work of the urogenital sphere in men should be evaluated by a specialized doctor in a short time.
Diseases that are diagnosed in the early stages of their development can be quickly and completely cured if you act according to a properly selected scheme.
The prostate gland, like many other tissues in the human body, is restored within certain limits. This property is actively used by modern doctors.
Synthesis of prostatic secretion
Having determined in general why men need the prostate gland, it is worth considering each of the functions of the organ individually. So, the secret produced by the prostate is an integral part of seminal fluid. If there is a violation of the amount of excreted substance, then infertility develops.
The secret contains the following biological components:
- Citric acid, also called sodium citrate, is a substance that prevents the development of stones. If it is not enough, calcifications appear in the organ.
- Factors of local immunity, which include prostaglandins, lysozymes, as well as secretory immunoglobulins.
- Prostatic juice, necessary to liquefy the ejaculate and give sperm the desired level of mobility.
- Prostate-specific antigen, also known as PSA.
Having determined what the secret of the prostate gland consists of, it becomes clear why it is needed.
Normal prostate size
It should be noted the structure of the organ. It is through it that urine is excreted, and during intercourse - the seed. This causes problems in men with the inflammatory process, when the enlarged prostate blocks the ducts to remove the secret, and stagnation is observed.
The same situation occurs in the case of irregular intimate life or with interrupted sexual intercourse. Such situations reduce the function of the prostate gland in men.
Prostate and Testosterone
The effect of the prostate on testosterone levels
In the case when hormonal disorders occur in the body, this affects how the iron works in men.
Iron grows in size, and then in a healthy state remains so for a long period.
What is testosterone good for? With a lowered level of this hormone in the body develops:
- Hyperplasia When the level of production of this hormone decreases, there is an increase in the activity of the prostate gland, in which tissue growth occurs, as well as the development of hyperplastic disorders.
- Prostatitis. As a result of the growth of organ tissues and the inflammatory processes that occur during this, which cause swelling of the organ, the throughput of the urinary system decreases.
Vessels near the prostate
Externally, this organ is surrounded by a fibrous capsule with a dense structure, from which the septum from the connective tissue is directed into the prostate gland. The vessels that surround this organ form the plexus of the veins of the prostate, which is associated with the vein of the penis and with hemorrhoidal vessels in the rectum.
The lymphatic system is similarly arranged. The outflow of lymph is carried out through vessels that are connected with the vessels of the lymphatic system in the rectum, and with organs located nearby. Supporting the normal functioning of these two systems is of no small importance, since without it, the probability of settling of bacteria inside the prostate that penetrates into it with lymph and blood increases.
Such anatomical features are responsible for the rather frequent occurrence of inflammation of the prostate and the difficulties associated with the treatment of prostatitis of an infectious origin.
Prostate and nervous system
There are many nerve endings in the prostate gland. These are vegetative nerve fibers, as well as sensitive nerves and endings.
There is a connection between ejaculation and sympathetic stimulation. Due to the involvement of the sympathetic nerves in the control of the prostatic muscles, it is possible to use alpha-blockers for the treatment of adenomas.
The nerve plexus in the pelvis with inflammation of any organ leads to the spread of the process to the other pelvic organs, resulting in pain.
Acute prostatitis may start due to hypothermia. At the same time, severe hyperthermia is noted - up to +40, chills occur. In the groin, perineum, lower abdomen, severe pain is felt, which is even worse when urinating. Possible impurities of blood in the urine.
Cause prostatitis bacterial etiology, the isolated form of which accounts for only 10 percent of cases of the entire mass of diseases - an infection that enters the prostate gland from neighboring organs. Sometimes the source is a fungus or a virus.
In case of discomfort, you should immediately seek medical help, as the likelihood of the following complications increases:
The development of prostatitis is promoted by:
- chronic infection in the urinary tract or respiratory organs,
- improper therapy of acute prostatitis,
- lack of regular intimate life,
- general deterioration of immunity.
Untreated chronic form of prostatitis prostate tissue is damaged.The disease takes on a severe form that is difficult to treat.
Up to 90% of all cases are chronic prostatitis of non-material etiology, manifested in the form of urination disorders, as well as constant pain in the perineum. The disease begins with inflammation, in its course autoimmune processes play the main role. This disease is characterized by a chronic focus of infection and a deviation in the regulation of the nervous system of organs in the pelvis and blood supply to the prostate gland.
The chronic form of prostatitis in the absence of therapy leads to such complications:
- erectile disfunction,
- prostate fibrosis,
Where is the prostate in men and how to find it: location and pattern of gland massaging
The prostate gland is an unpaired organ that plays an important role in the functioning of the genitourinary system.
At the slightest disturbance of the organ, a man experiences discomfort or more severe pain, cannot fully lead an active lifestyle.
In order to timely identify health problems, it is important to know more about the functionality of the organ, to know where the prostate gland is located, to be able to feel it on your own, without visiting a doctor’s office.
Why know where the prostate is in men (photo)? Procedure value
Why do you need to know about the location of the prostate in men? Stimulation (massage) of the prostate can be carried out not only to identify problems, but also for:
- Treatment, disease prevention.
- Improvement of blood circulation in the pelvic organs.
- Stimulation of ejaculate production.
- Cleansing the prostate from excess secretion by scanty sex.
There are also a number of contraindications for the procedure, including a professionally diagnosed stage of prostatitis, the presence of cracks in the anus, the period of exacerbation of hemorrhoids, in the presence of tumors and other inflammations of the intestine, genitourinary system.
We examined where the prostate is located in men with a photo demonstration and how it can be felt so that every gentleman can independently monitor his health condition and timely identify the symptoms of the disease.
What is the prostate, where is it located and what functions does it perform
The prostate gland (or prostate, which is one and the same thing) is an exclusively male unpaired genital organ, which is part of the male reproductive system. The location of the prostate is in the central region of the small pelvis between the rectum and the pubic bone directly under the bladder.
In form, the prostate gland looks like an inverted trapezoid with rounded edges, in size - like a chestnut. The structure of the prostate includes:
- base and top. The base is the wide, concave edge of the prostate. The front of the base fuses with the bladder, and the back touches the seminal vesicles. The apex is the narrow part of the prostate, facing the muscles of the perineum,
- front, back and lower lateral surfaces. The front surface faces the pubic bone. The back of the prostate and the rectum border tightly, and this makes it possible to examine the prostate rectally,
- the right and left lobes, as well as the groove and the isthmus that separate them. The isthmus grows with age, becomes wider, therefore it is called the average share.
75% of prostate tissues are prostatic glands, the rest is elastic muscle tissue. Fibromuscular septa divide all the glands into lobules, the cells of which produce prostate juice.
The number of lobules is about fifty. Each lobule is equipped with a separate duct. The secret is ejected during ejaculation due to contraction of the muscle tissue surrounding the lobules.
The ducts of all the glands merge and open in the urethra.
The prostate gland is enclosed in connective tissue, the so-called capsule. The consistency of the prostate is dense, elastic. It is supplied with blood mainly due to the bladder artery.The plexus of numerous veins surrounds the gland.
Glandular tissue is usually zoned depending on where it is located relative to the urethra:
- central zone (about 25%). It is located around the ducts that eject the seed. About 10% of cancer cases occur in this area,
- peripheral zone (about 75%). Covers the center back, sides and bottom,
- transition zone, or transit zone (up to 5% of glandular tissue).
Being the size of a pea in a newly born boy, the prostate continues to grow up to about forty years, then age-related involution can occur - a decrease in size. Accordingly, the size of the prostate in men is individual. So, for men of 30 years of age, it weighs an average of 20 grams, its transverse size is 3 cm, longitudinal - 4 cm, and a thickness of about 2 cm.
How to find the prostate gland
You can find out exactly where the prostate is located on your own. To find it in the male body, it is enough to insert a finger into the anus by about 5 centimeters.
Then, gently touch the finger: the prostate, this is where the dense lump located behind the front wall of the rectum is recognized. The prostate is easier to find when the bladder is full.
It is necessary to settle down as comfortably as possible.
The prostate gland was lucky in that, due to the structure of the pelvic organs of a man and the proximity to the rectum, access to it is uncomplicated.
This opportunity has been successfully used in medicine, diagnosing rectally diseases of the genitourinary system with the help of ultrasound, MRI, and treating various diseases with medications (candles, ointments) and physiotherapy, such as warming up or treating with prostate gland massage in men.
You can also examine and treat the prostate through the urethra.
Various types of prostate diseases are treated, including surgical intervention. With it, damaged parts of the tissue, or the organ, are completely removed to avoid death.
The operation is indicated for abscesses, advanced prostatitis, adenoma, and prostate cancer.
The need for surgery is indicated by involuntary urination, delayed urine outflow, hematuria, purulent processes, stones in the bladder, renal failure and other factors.
Surgery on the prostate comes down to four types:
- open adenomectomy is an operation in which part of the prostate gland is removed. Access to the gland opens through an incision in the lower abdomen of the patient. An adenomectomy can treat urinary symptoms, such as, for example, frequent or intermittent urination caused by large adenomas, stones in the bladder, or narrowing of the urethra. This is an effective therapy, but there is a risk of side effects such as erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, heavy bleeding,
- an operation in which part of the prostate is removed using endoscopic equipment. These are laser vaporization and transurethral resection. A transurethral resection is done by introducing a loop through the urethra, vaporization is performed by a laser. The surgeon controls the process on the monitor screen. Laser selectively removes tissue parts, while layers are cauterized. The operation allows you to remove significant volumes of adenoma almost bloodlessly,
- An operation in which the prostate is completely removed is a radical prostatectomy. Indications for intervention are oncological neoplasms. When conducting a prostatectomy, basically two types of open access are practiced: abdominal (an incision is made from the navel to the frontal bone) and perineal (a horizontal incision between the anus and genitals).The technique of performing prostatectomy using endoscopic equipment also began to be introduced, but so far it is not widespread,
- minimally invasive intervention: puncture of the prostate. Performed by needles through the perineum. It is used as part of antibiotic therapy, for the study of microflora, the opening of abscesses, removal of ulcers.
The effect of the prostate on reproductive function
Inflammation of the prostate gland is directly related to a man’s ability to conceive.
The quality of the secretion of the prostate depends on how healthy it is, which means the quality of seminal fluid: its volume, acid-base balance, viscosity, sperm speed.
This one organ, despite its small size, having ceased to function normally, is able to completely upset the reproductive mechanism.
The importance of a healthy lifestyle today is not entirely obvious. Why be strong if you do not need to earn a living by hard physical labor? No need to walk, because you can use the car.
What is the point of cooking healthy food if fast food is faster and more affordable? Bad habits and constant stress exacerbate the situation. Thus, stagnation begins in the body, blood circulation is disturbed, inflammation appears. All this leads to prostatitis, and, as a result, to infertility.
Prostatitis has become a disease of our time, a retribution for a comfortable life. The number of couples unable to have children is growing.
By listening to your body, paying attention to failures, you can prevent the development of the disease. The main complaints with diseases of the prostate are:
- chronic pelvic pain, back pain,
- acute pain accompanied by nausea, chills,
- problems with urination: frequent, painful, intermittent,
- decreased sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, pain during ejaculation,
- blood in urine or semen
- general weakness, constant fatigue,
- mood swings, irritability, nervousness.
Many men do not consider these symptoms to be a good reason to go to the doctor. Most lack knowledge on where the prostate is located in men, what this organ is for, how to find the prostate, how important it is to maintain its health.
Underestimating the effect of prostatitis, chronic or acute, on reproductive function, without reacting to inflammation, you can disrupt all the processes of fertilization. Decreased sexual activity, weak potency, impotence are a direct consequence of prostate diseases.
That is why it is extremely important to diagnose as early as possible, to understand the causes of the failure, to undergo a full course of therapy, to carry out preventive measures, to do everything so that the disease does not return.
The structure and function of the prostate gland in men
The prostate or prostate gland is an unpaired organ of the genitourinary system, the “second heart” of a man. Adequate work of the prostate gland is the key to a stable psycho-emotional state of men. The harmonious functioning of the prostate largely affects overall health and determines the ability to conceive a child throughout life.
Blood supply and innervation
Blood supply and innervation of the prostate gland
The main source of blood supply to the prostate is the lower artery of the bladder. This vessel is a branch of the large iliac artery. Several thin branches (from two to five) - the arteries of the prostate gland - depart from the bladder artery.
Branching in the thickness of the prostate, the arteries provide the body with oxygen and nutrients necessary for its full functioning.
Blood supply to the prostate gland is also due to branches of hemorrhoidal arteries and perineal vessels.
Venous outflow of blood from the prostate is carried out by a network of small veins flowing into the plexus around the bladder.From the prostate venous plexus, blood enters the urinary vesicles and then into the inferior vena cava. Through veins from the prostate, metabolic products are removed and, thereby, adequate organ function is ensured.
The outflow of lymph from the prostate gland passes through the lymph nodes and vessels located around the organ. Further lymph flow is carried out along the ileal arteries, near the sacrum and rectum.
Lymph nodes of the pelvis are the first to respond to pathological changes in the prostate and increase in size.
Inguinal and perineal lymph nodes are also sensitive to various inflammatory processes in the prostate gland.
The innervation of the prostate is carried out by the branches of the hypogastric plexus. Separate nerve fibers form their own network around the prostate and nearby organs. In the thickness of the prostate gland there are also many receptors that respond to a wide variety of changes in the body.